- MN: Another’s outside storage unit at an apartment building found because its key was found during a search of the apt couldn’t be searched under apt SW
- CO: Def’s DNA was unlawfully collected in a juvenile proceeding and entered into CODIS, and the exclusionary rule is applied
- W.D.Va.: § 1983 case over same search lost in state court is barred by Heck
- LA1: Changing suppression issue on appeal from lack of PC to arrest to an unreasonable search is waiver of the issue
- S.D.N.Y.: Exclusionary rule doesn’t apply to federal supervised release hearings
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Author Archives: Hall
The officer’s objective reliance on pre-Birchfield law meant the good faith exception applied. State v. Nielsen, 301 Neb. 88, 2018 Neb. LEXIS 158 (Sep 15, 2018). Pre-Carpenter CSLI by SCA order without probable cause was the law prior to Carpenter, … Continue reading
D.N.M.: Def parked car near his house but left it in gear with the key in the ignition; it was not abandoned
Defendant did not abandon his car. He parked it at his house and went inside. His dog was still inside. The entry into his car was reasonable under the community caretaking function because it was left in gear, and a … Continue reading
NE: Shots fired at car led to officers seeing likely kicked in door and blood on doormat and that was exigency
Officers responded to a call about shots fired hitting a car, and, at defendant’s apartment building, defendant and his cohort fled when the police approached. Possible blood was found on his doormat, and the door had a boot mark that … Continue reading
Alleged violation of a state regulation that led to defendant juvenile’s identity didn’t warrant suppression. Suppression would require the statute align with a constitutional requirement. Moreover, there was no police misconduct; indeed, the police did good work here in locating … Continue reading
Defense counsel didn’t file a motion to suppress because she didn’t see a reason for it until testimony at trial revealed the issue. Therefore, the defense made a mid-trial motion to suppress. The trial court denied it on two grounds: … Continue reading
IL: Not error for court to decline to continue suppression hearing for what would have been merely cumulative evidence having no affect on outcome
It was not error to deny a continuance in a suppression hearing after it started because one officer was unavailable due to a death in the family. The defense didn’t even know what he would testify to when asked, but … Continue reading
CA11: Tasering elderly man suffering a severe hypoglycemic episode five times and while trying to comply was excessive
“Mr. Glasscox, [an apparently elderly man] who lives with Type 1 diabetes, suffered a severe hypoglycemic episode while driving his pickup truck on Interstate 59 South near the City of Argo, Alabama. His condition caused him to begin driving erratically. … Continue reading
S.D.Fla.: The FTC sought an order of production of cell phones and laptops for search in an action for injunction; production not testimonial and PC shown
The FTC sued defendants for injunctive relief and sought an order for production of cell phones and laptop computers. On the first issue of preservation of the Fourth Amendment claim in addition to the clearly asserted Fifth Amendment, the court … Continue reading
2 a.m. knock and talk may have been unreasonable, and summary judgment for officers is reversed. Plaintiff closed her door and they insisted upon entry. The officers were investigating whether plaintiff’s son committed trespass that night. Plaintiff also stated a … Continue reading
CA9: No articulable facts could be given for exigent based entry into apt; “lack of information is the opposite of articulable facts.”
There was no objectively reasonable basis for an emergency entry into defendant’s apartment because the police said that somebody might need immediate assistance. Defendant grabbed his waistband when running, but no gun was ever seen. “[L]ack of information is the … Continue reading
The traffic statute defendant was alleged to have violated was unambiguous, and the court finds defendant didn’t violate it. Therefore, there can be no reasonable good faith reliance on the statute to salvage the stop. People v. Walker, 2018 IL … Continue reading
M.D.La.: Typo in the address of the place to be searched not fatal where officers surveilled it before
There was an error in the address on the search warrant, but it’s clear to the court that there was no likelihood that the wrong apartment would be searched because the officers had surveilled it. There was reasonable suspicion for … Continue reading