- FoxNews: Judge Andrew Napolitano: Police surveillance cameras and facial recognition technology threaten our privacy
- W.D.Wis.: Officers had a reasonable belief under Payton def was on the premises for execution of an arrest warrant
- PA directs parties to brief whether Carpenter applies to real time CSLI
- Cal.6: A broad SW is permissible in a computer search because it may be difficult to locate the subject of the search
- TN: Defense counsel’s failure to predict Riley wasn’t IAC
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonableness
Defendant was a part time police officer conviction of state civil rights violations for sexual assault during frisks of women that clearly exceeded the Fourth Amendment. State v. Sanderson, 2019-Ohio-3589, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 3673 (2d Dist. Sept. 6, 2019).* … Continue reading
Nearly public strip search of female detainee on an open parking lot by a female officer also berating her with a male officer nearby stated a claim and overcame qualified immunity. Robinson v. Hawkins, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 26772 (8th … Continue reading
“A group of masked City of Detroit police officers broke down plaintiff Katrina McGrew’s door, threw her to the ground, and handcuffed her so tightly it left bruises. When she complained about how constricting the handcuffs were, the officers threatened … Continue reading
“As previously noted, this Court must pay great deference to a magistrate’s determination of probable cause and must take a common-sense approach rather than a hyper-technical approach. Nonetheless, given the totality of the circumstances set forth in the Affidavit, including … Continue reading
An NCIC check is within the normal mission of a traffic stop. “Next, regardless of the timing of events, ‘most courts confronted with the issue have determined that checking a passenger’s driver’s license in addition to the vehicle driver’s license … Continue reading
E.D.Va.: Request for consent within 20 seconds of handing over tickets didn’t unreasonably extend stop
A request for consent within 20 seconds of handing the tickets to the defendant did not unreasonably extend the stop. The court finds the consent voluntary. United States v. Perez-Almeida, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 144705 (E.D. Va. Aug. 26, 2019). … Continue reading
Strieff in a near replica case; outstanding arrest warrant overcomes allegedly illegal stop
“Accordingly, based upon our application of the Brown factors in a circumstance markedly similar to Strieff, we conclude that Defendant’s arrest warrant was an intervening cause that broke the causal chain between Officer Townsend’s unlawful detention of Defendant and the … Continue reading
NC: Def outside cleaning his car when police showed up for drug raid couldn’t be detained under Summers
When the police showed up to search the premises, defendant was outside cleaning his car. His detention cannot be justified by Summers as a known recent occupant of the premises. His conviction is reversed. State v. Thompson, 2019 N.C. App. … Continue reading
The automobile exception applied to an already parked car because it’s still “mobile” for exigency purposes. United States v. Mizell, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 138171 (N.D. Ga. July 29, 2019), adopted, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 137988 (N.D. Ga. Aug. 15, … Continue reading
In a felon in possession case, there was a prior illegal search by state troopers. ATF picked up the case immediately and applied for a search warrant that included the information from the illegal search, and there was independent evidence … Continue reading
Tennessee has a “must cite” statute, that misdemeanor arrestees are presumptive cited and released. That, however, doesn’t govern the Fourth Amendment under Virginia v. Moore. United States v. Chol, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 129565 (M.D. Tenn. Aug. 2, 2019). The … Continue reading