- W.D.Va.: Def counsel’s decision not to pursue a motion to suppress was reasonable and designed to prevent superseding indictment with higher MM
- N.D.Ind.: Mixed motive for traffic stop isn’t 4A violation as long as there is objective basis for RS
- W.D.Wash.: Govt showed cause to deny return of property until 2255 was over in case of retrial
- NJ: Officer had RS def was armed; refusal of patdown justified exigent strip search at station house
- S.D.Tex.: Immigration stop 56 miles from border was without RS
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonableness
There was evidence defendants coordinated their actions while in separate cars, and that provided a strong inference they were in communication by cell phone, thus providing probable cause to search them. Police promptly seized the phones and then obtained search … Continue reading
OH5: Stop became unreasonable where officer extended stop 13 minutes and never started on ticket for failure to signal
The trial court suppressed because the stop was overly extended. Defendant was stopped for alleged failure to signal, and it dragged on for 13 minutes without the officer ever starting on writing a ticket. Conceding the stop was likely valid, … Continue reading
Officers arrived with a search warrant for a house on rural property, and a vehicle was leaving. It was reasonable to stop the vehicle to determine whether it or an occupant belonged at the house and was covered by the … Continue reading
CA9: No QI for IRS agent insisting that she watch ptf pee in her own bathroom during execution of tax SW
During an IRS criminal search, an IRS supervisory officer insisted that she watch plaintiff urinate in plaintiff’s own bathroom. This was sufficient to show an unreasonable invasion of privacy and overcome qualified immunity. Ioane v. Hodges, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
D.N.M.: Whether the maintaining one’s lane statute was violated is subject to Heien and the reasonable mistake of law
The collective knowledge doctrine applies to reasonable suspicion, too. Here, there is argument whether defendant actually violated the requirement of staying in his lane by touching the lane marker or crossing it. Either way, the court finds that this qualifies … Continue reading
W.D.N.C.: When they had PC for rural house, entry to freeze situation was reasonable when magistrate was two hours away
After police stopped a car suspected in drug deals, they learned that the drugs came from a particular address which was used as a distribution point. They developed probable cause for the house. They were two hours away from a … Continue reading
Defendant’s cell phone was reasonably seized to preserve any evidence in it. The two day delay in getting a search warrant for it did not unreasonably interfere with defendant’s possessory interest in it. Commonwealth v. Cruzado, 2018 Mass. LEXIS 549 … Continue reading
The Grand Rapids Police Department has a policy permitting officers to photograph and fingerprint people who are stopped just because they want to. The plaintiffs stated a claim for relief against the city for its policy. Johnson v. Vanderkooi, 2018 … Continue reading
(1) “In sum, the warrant here (i) identified the items to be seized in relation to specific Subject Offenses, (ii) included an illustrative list of records to limit the discretion of executing agents, and (iii) provided a sufficient description of … Continue reading
New Jersey’s bail reform act which shifts emphasis away from money bail to other restraints and conditions to assure release and return to court does not violate the Fourth Amendment. Not all restraints are unreasonable, given a probable cause finding … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: By following def and causing him to slow down, the officer created the alleged violation of driving under the minimum speed; stop unreasonable
The DEA asked the Michigan State Police to stop defendant. A trooper followed him and he was driving the speed limit and violating no laws. The officer pulled up next to him to get a look, then slowed to pull … Continue reading
CA10: A KS child welfare pick-up order was valid on its face in CO and didn’t need to be registered to satisfy 4A
A Kansas court issued a pick-up order for ten children from one family for various allegations. At the time the family was found, they were in Colorado, and the order was executed there. There was no statutory or constitutional duty … Continue reading