- N.D.N.Y.: Mere disagreement with state court 4A determination still bars habeas review
- E.D.N.C.: Removing protective sweep from affidavit for SW still leaves PC
- TN: No right to reconsideration of denial of motion to suppress on transfer to a different trial judge after denial
- CA6: Officer executing a state arrest warrant doesn’t have to independently verify its validity
- CA6: Closely monitored controlled buy shows CI’s reliability
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonableness
Defendant’s arrest after an NCIC check showed warrants for him was reasonable. State v. Widmer, 2020 N.M. App. LEXIS 41 (Sept. 15, 2020). To the same effect is United States v. Bullock, 020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 170229 (N.D. Iowa Aug. … Continue reading
N.D.Miss.: In wrongful death action, officer’s subjective intent offered by 404(b) evidence is inadmissible; reasonableness is objective
Because the reasonableness standard is based on objective evidence confronting the officer, the use of 404(b) evidence here would be too extraneous to show subjective intent. “Because reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment is disconnected from an officer’s subjective intent, the … Continue reading
Just because the evidence was suppressed in plaintiff’s criminal case and then affirmed on appeal doesn’t mean the criminal case was terminated in his favor on the facts. He possessed heroin, and that’s not in dispute, and there was probable … Continue reading
“Kinsella misinterpreted an unambiguous statute, thereby committing an unreasonable mistake of law. See Gaytan, 2015 IL 116223, ¶ 45; see also United States v. Stanbridge, 813 F.3d 1032, 1037-38 (7th Cir. 2016) (‘[The officer] simply was wrong about what the … Continue reading
The City of Springfield mask ordinance does not violate, inter alia, the Fourth Amendment right to privacy. Shelton v. City of Springfield, 6:20-cv-03258 (W.D. Mo. Sept. 2, 2020). “In specifically detailing the criminal conduct under investigation, the search warrants provide … Continue reading
NY: Stop because license plate reader erroneously said car should have still been in impound lot was unreasonable
The stop here was based a license plate search. The Buffalo impound lot had not updated its records that defendant got his car out of impound more than a week earlier. There was no traffic violation. The stop was unreasonable … Continue reading
A police officer may ask a stopped motorist in a traffic stop whether he is armed without violating the Fourth Amendment. State v. Ferguson, 2020-Ohio-4153, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 3051 (2d Dist. Aug. 21, 2020). Defendant’s traffic stop evolved into … Continue reading
There is no distinction between civil and criminal traffic infractions under the Fourth Amendment under Whren and Arizona v. Johnson. Even a patdown can occur in a civil infraction stop. United States v. Meadows, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 26120 (10th … Continue reading
The warranted video surveillance of the spa in the Kraft case was unreasonable for lack of minimization to protect privacy. The law on surreptitious surveillance and minimization is well settled. “The type of law enforcement surveillance utilized in these cases … Continue reading
CA7: Prison inmates have 4A reasonableness protection against abusive strip and body cavity searches
Prison inmates retain a Fourth Amendment reasonableness right against abusive strip and body cavity searches enough to state a claim here. Qualified immunity is reserved for later. Henry v. Hulett, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 25390 (7th Cir. Aug. 11, 2020) … Continue reading
CA9: It was well established that “illegal presence” in the U.S. was not a crime, so ptf’s arrest was unreasonable
Illegal entry is a crime, but not mere presence, and that was well established since 2012. Defendant’s arrest of plaintiff in a courtroom as a witness on suspicion of being here illegally at the request of a JP was unreasonable. … Continue reading
Violation of department violations can’t reasonably be a § 1983 claim or violation of the Fourth Amendment. Estate of Biegert v. Molitor, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 24211 (7th Cir. July 31, 2020):
When officers, including the SWAT team, came to arrest the decedent, he had a gun in hand and raised it. He was already known to be potentially violent, and the shooting was reasonable under the circumstances. Estate of Valverde v. … Continue reading
Defendant’s stop was objectively reasonable, even though the officer cited the wrong statute. People v. Ambrose, 2020 COA 112, 2020 Colo. App. LEXIS 1384 (July 23, 2020). “[W]e need not address Salas’s argument that a slight delay to conduct a … Continue reading
CA7: Unreasonable administrative delay in releasing pretrial detainees entitled to release violates 4A
Unreasonable administrative delay in getting people out of jail that are entitled to it violates the Fourth Amendment under Gerstein and County of Riverside. Williams v. Dart, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 23132 (7th Cir. July 23, 2020):