- AR: Wrong address on SW not fatal where affiant was executing officer and the right place was searched
- CA10: Gun seized during inventory called off could not be kept by police
- D.Nev.: Def failing to immediately stop and drawing officers deep into a parking lot added to RS
- CA6: PC for ptf’s arrest and prosecution defeats malicious prosecution claim, despite his acquittal
- OH5: Def’s inordinate delay in finding car insurance card enabled reasonable dog sniff
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonable suspicion
While the question is close, “I find that Pappas had reasonable suspicion that Eddards was armed and dangerous. While performing proactive gang enforcement in an area plagued by crimes being committed in rental cars, Pappas and Nahum attempted to pull … Continue reading
There was reasonable suspicion for defendant’s stop based on a computer check of his LPN which showed it had expired. The sticker, however, showed it was current. The officer could make the stop to check whether it was counterfeit, something … Continue reading
Dialing defendant’s cell phone from the call log of a seized cell phone was not a search. If defendant wanted his number to remain private, he should block the number or turn off the phone. United States v. Katana, 2021 … Continue reading
If the trial court in a suppression hearing goes off in another direction not raised by the parties, the parties get to respond. Here, the state was on notice. State v. Arthur, 2021-Ohio-104, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 100 (5th Dist. … Continue reading
The district court did not abuse its discretion in declining equitable jurisdiction under Rule 41(g) for lack of a threshold showing of standing and justiciability. United States v. Stoune, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 1178 (11th Cir. Jan. 15, 2021). The … Continue reading
Before an officer files a criminal complaint, there is no constitutional duty to review potential video of the occurrence. The video here wasn’t quickly accessible to the officer. Here, there was probable cause and this other constitutional claim is not … Continue reading
In a recreational marijuana state, “We are unprepared to say that, as to any person driving a rental car on a public highway in Oregon that is also used by drug traffickers, any odor of marijuana gives rise to reasonable … Continue reading
E.D.Tenn.: Def’s car that others were known to drive being outside house of another wasn’t reasonable belief he was there
Officers did not have a reasonable belief defendant was on the premises of another just because he was seen there a month earlier and what was somewhat believed to be his car was parked out outside just before the entry. … Continue reading
The Eighth Amendment applies to excessive force claims in prison; the Fourth Amendment to free worlders. Rodriguez v. United States, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 4100 (E.D. Cal. Jan. 7, 2021). The court believes the officer over the defendant on whether … Continue reading
Defendant’s address wasn’t included in the affidavit for the search warrant, but its picture was and there was no mistake on the place searched. That was sufficient. United States v. Lingo, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3861 (E.D. Tenn. Jan. 8, … Continue reading
“Plaintiff does not allege that the search itself violated his rights but, rather, it is the recording of the search that he finds objectionable.” “[U]sing a camera to record a strip search in a prison does not, by itself, amount … Continue reading
If defendant moves and nexus to his residence and drugs has been established, it is a reasonable inference that the drugs went with the move. United States v. Hudson, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 246482 (D. Minn. Dec.19, 2020). “On the … Continue reading
Because possession of recreational marijuana is legal in Oregon, the smell alone is not reasonable suspicion. Here, however, there was reasonable suspicion based on additional facts of attempted concealment. State v. T.T. (In re T.T.), 308 Ore. App. 408 (Jan. … Continue reading
“First, we need not address the collective-knowledge doctrine. The police officer who initiated the traffic stop developed reasonable suspicion of a straw purchase through his own questioning and discovery of the firearm in Perez’s trunk after Perez lied about having … Continue reading
“Mr. Ryan also alleges that there wasn’t any ‘adversarial pursuit of the Fourth Amendment’s protection of privacy can not be invalidated simply because a person’s right to want to be private evidences unlawful activity because the person does not want … Continue reading