- E.D.Mich.: Listing inventory on police report and not inventory sheet not unreasonable
- VT: Roving CBP patrol stop one mile from Canadian border violated state const. even though probably not 4A
- IL: Mere visitor present at time of SW execution could not be searched without reason
- WaPo: When the FBI seizes your messages from Big Tech, you may not know it for years
- E.D.Ky.: Sex offense victim’s uncorroborated statements supported issuance of SW for defendant’s email account
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonable suspicion
“Therefore, the officers’ decision to list the items recovered during the inventory search in the Incident Report and not on the Impound Report does not invalidate the inventory search.” United States v. Morris, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 182946 (E.D.Mich. Sept. … Continue reading
“Here, officers deployed a drug-detection dog during a traffic stop for failing to signal continuously for at least 100 feet before turning-without articulating any independent constitutional justification. Moreover, the state has not identified any theory or pointed us to any … Continue reading
When a traffic stop turns into reasonable suspicion for other crime, the reasonable suspicion extends to being able to control the passenger, too, for officer safety. There is no reasoned basis for differentiating between drivers and passengers for officer safety. … Continue reading
“Stone makes much out of the fact that the SOS database is only 90-95% accurate. The database’s high degree of accuracy would seem to work against rather than support Stone’s argument. As a practical matter, ‘probable cause does not require … Continue reading
After a patdown, new facts at the scene can support a second one. State v. Carrillo, 2021 N.J. Super. LEXIS 123 (Sept. 17, 2021). “Here, the totality of the circumstances—Traylor’s regular use of a vehicle that was observed recently at … Continue reading
“In light of the uncontested fact that Plaintiff presented his pistol permit to Defendant before or at the time he disclosed that he was in possession of a pistol and the absence of any other indicia that Plaintiff was otherwise … Continue reading
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in jail calls admitted to prove a conspiracy, and Carpenter doesn’t apply. “While we need not decide how far Carpenter extends to other technologies, it does not apply to prison phone calls. Unlike … Continue reading
DC: Grabbing one’s waistband while running from the police signals contraband, despite possible innocent explanations
Grabbing at one’s waistband while running from the police may have innocent explanations, too, but it signals contraband. Newman v. United States, 7-CF-520 (D.C. Sept. 2, 2021). A delay between the traffic stop and an ultimate search is not per … Continue reading
Defendant pawned property that wasn’t his. The police went and picked it up within the period he could have redeemed. There was no reasonable expectation of privacy in bailed property at a pawnshop. Moreover, pawnshops are highly regulated businesses where … Continue reading
Reasonable suspicion defendant was driving a car with a child in it in violation of an order of protection was justification for his stop. When the car was stopped, the smell of marijuana justified its further search. United States v. … Continue reading
Defendant’s excessive nervousness, denial that some of the contents of the car were even his, and repeatedly talking on the phone with someone the officer suspected was coaching him what to do and say even after being repeatedly told to … Continue reading
A concealed carry permit is not cause for handcuffing a motorist. Soukaneh v. Andrzejewski, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 147750 (D.Conn. Aug. 6, 2021). The lack of an arrest warrant isn’t relevant in an excessive force case where officers came to … Continue reading
The officer’s order for defendant to get out of the car was reasonable and did not unreasonably prolong the stop. United States v. Malone, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 26136 (10th Cir. Aug. 30, 2021). “While Fisk brings his assignment of … Continue reading
“An objectively reasonable officer, having consulted with the State’s Attorney in the preparation of the complaint and affidavit accompanying the application for the warrant, could have relied in good faith on the search warrant that he obtained from a judge. … Continue reading
“New York is no outlier on this issue. Indeed, as far as we can discern, every single court in the United States to ever consider this precise issue has come to the same conclusion as Darby and Sanchez: a trained … Continue reading
Defendant waived any reasonable expectation of privacy in a cigarette butt he through away where the police found his DNA. It was used to solve a cold case of rape and attempted murder from 1993. State v. Bortree, 2021-Ohio-2873, 2021 … Continue reading