- Reason: ‘Everything Has Been Criminalized,’ Says Neil Gorsuch as He Pushes for Stronger Fourth Amendment Protections
- PA: With MMJ, smell of MJ alone isn’t PC for search of a car; more required
- GA: Contraband in plain view on def’s property didn’t justify warrantless entry to seize it
- W.D.Wash.: iCloud SW temporal limit was impractical
- D.Nev.: “Seeming[ly] strategic activation and deactivation of the body camera” leads to finding of no consent
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Franks doctrine
Defendant was stopped for a lane violation, and it turned out he had no DL. He wasn’t arrested but the vehicle was impounded and searched incident to that, even though defendant would likely go with the tow truck driver to … Continue reading
N.D.Tex.: Def counsel wasn’t obliged to argue a Franks issue to the jury at trial; that’s presumptively strategy
Defense counsel wasn’t obliged to raise a Franks issue in closing argument. That’s quintessentially a strategic decision. “The Supreme Court has recognized that ‘judicious selection of arguments for summation is a core exercise of defense counsel’s discretion,’ and counsel ‘is … Continue reading
A state court’s findings of lack of probable cause to proceed with some charges against the defendant isn’t binding on federal courts. “Based on the evidence presented at the hearing, including the 911 calls, bodycam footage, and the credible and … Continue reading
FL1: Screen shot of of meth on a scale on driver’s cell phone permitted dog sniff during writing of traffic ticket
Defendant was stopped for a traffic offense, and he was unusually nervous. Sitting on his left leg was a cell phone with the screen on showing a picture of meth on a scale. That justified a dog sniff while a … Continue reading
New Jersey adopts a specific preliminary showing requirement for additional discovery of a Franks violation. State v. Desir, 2021 N.J. LEXIS 127 (Feb. 9, 2021). From the syllabus:
Defendant was charged with stalking a former boss. A disguised email was traced by metadata to defendant’s router. His computer was searched, and the email was found. The question of probable cause for the search warrant does not require the … Continue reading
Even if the search of defendant’s bag was invalid, he was taken to the police station and his bag was validly searched again an inventory. United States v. Ruffin, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 3351 (2d Cir. Feb. 8, 2021). Defendant’s … Continue reading
911 was called by defendant’s mother about his possible cardiac arrest. When the officer arrived, defendant was alert and fine, and his drugs were in plain view. Their seizure was valid. Glanden v. State, 2021 Md. App. LEXIS 80 (Feb. … Continue reading
“Second, the affidavits supported the Magistrate’s determination that there was a nexus between the murder and Defendant’s iPhone. The affidavits averred that Witness 2 texted Defendant throughout the day of the murder.” State v. Wilson, 2021 Del. Super. LEXIS 84 … Continue reading
Defendant sought to challenge his search warrant as a lack of probable cause but couched it in terms that sounded like Franks. He needs to make this clear so the government can appropriately respond. United States v. McComas, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading
S.D.N.Y.: Opinion in affidavit that amount of drugs involved was enough for distribution was not a Franks issue
The affidavit for a phone warrant for an electronic boarding pass was issued with probable cause. The affidavit statement that the amount of drugs was enough for “distribution” was neither false nor reckless, just because defendant disagrees with it. United … Continue reading
When a search warrant is executed on a Dropbox account, the seizing officer’s knowledge of the seizure can authenticate the production. People v. Abad, 2021 COA 6, 2021 Colo. App. LEXIS 89 (Jan. 28, 2021). Franks offer fails: “The facts … Continue reading
“[T]he warrant affidavit established probable cause to search the Residence, based on a combination of the smell of marijuana emanating from the Residence and the marijuana stem recovered in the trash pull. The affidavit reveals that three different MNPD officers … Continue reading
Defendant’s specific argument on appeal about the lack of probable cause was not presented to the trial court, so it’s not preserved for appeal. In a Franks part of the motion, the affidavit has to be read as a whole, … Continue reading
The omission of some facts didn’t make out a Franks violation. Affiants for search warrants are not required to itemize every fact they know and omission of some, the nonmaterial, doesn’t make out a Franks violation nor undermine the probable … Continue reading