- CA6: Def’s IAC argument that suppression argument could have been better made fails because it wouldn’t prevail in any event
- D.Utah: Def lacked standing in an apt rented for him he knew was by identity theft
- GA: Guest had standing but he was subject to owner’s consenting
- MA: Def’s clothes can be seized and searched for trace evidence on arrest for murder
- N.D.Miss.: Use of a smartphone app to translate request for consent was mooted by valid Spanish consent form
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Standards of review
Defendant’s trial objection was based on Miranda and the Fifth Amendment. No Fourth Amendment claim was made so it is waived and post trial briefing is too late. United States v. Horton, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 201898 (E.D. N.C. Nov. … Continue reading
The officer parking across defendant’s driveway wasn’t his seizure. Defendant wasn’t seized until he came out from under a trailer. When he was seized, it was with reasonable suspicion. United States v. Shelton, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 197713 (D. N.M. … Continue reading
W.D.La.: Officers’ subjective belief in def’s standing at time of search isn’t material to the court’s determination on objective facts
At the time of the search, officers believed defendant had standing in the place searched, but that’s not relevant to the court’s determination. “Federal agents were aware of Defendant and believed that he lived in the residence in question. But … Continue reading
Defendant’s cross examination of the officer who authored the affidavit for the search warrant to attack his credibility by the affidavit “opened the door” to defendant’s other crimes which were admitted under 404(b) on the government’s request on redirect. United … Continue reading
Defendant filed a FRCP 60 motion to alter the judgment in his 2255 where he’d already lost in 2010 on various issues, including a search issue. The judgment is summarily affirmed as res judicata. United States v. Dortch, 2018 U.S. … Continue reading
A search warrant with a nighttime search authorization can be executed in the daytime, too. State v. Flores, 2018-Ohio-3980, 2018 Ohio App. LEXIS 4307 (6th Dist. Oct. 1, 2018) [Daytime warrant execution is just safer. That’s why there’s a high … Continue reading
LA1: Changing suppression issue on appeal from lack of PC to arrest to an unreasonable search is waiver of the issue
Defendant’s motion changed from probable cause to arrest to whether there was an unreasonable search and seizure between the suppression hearing and the appeal. Thus, the issue for appeal wasn’t presented to the trial court, so it’s not preserved for … Continue reading
CA7: Considering that SWs are entitled to deference, the strong inference here doesn’t have to be proved
In a child pornography starting as a fake child enticement case: “Scott assumes that on appeal we will make an independent (de novo) assessment of probable cause, ignoring the state judge’s finding. We will not. The decision of the judge … Continue reading
Defendant’s traffic stop was unreasonable because there was no objective, let alone good faith, basis for the stop. There were conflicting traffic signs at the intersection, but they didn’t apply to appellant in his lane. Also, the state could not … Continue reading
GA: SW obviates need to follow the hearing provisions of the Georgia Animal Protection Act which has provision for impoundment and return of animals seized under the Act
The Georgia Animal Protection Act has provision for impoundment and return of animals seized by the state. When a search warrant is used, as here, that provision doesn’t apply. Bramblett v. Habersham County, 2018 Ga. App. LEXIS 399 (June 21, … Continue reading
“This is a hornbook example of how to waive an argument on appeal.” The search issue presented on appeal was never presented to the trial court. “[P]arties cannot conjure up brand new legal theories on appeal like this. Failing to … Continue reading