October 2023 S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
- PA: LPR systems don’t violate motorists REP
- D.Minn.: Failure to show nexus still saved by GFE because there’s always an inference
- D.Ariz.: No RS for stop, but def fled when tried to be pulled over and that was
- NBC News: Marion, Kansas, police chief suspended following series of raids
- OH9: No justification needed for police to run an LPN number
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“Life is not a matter of holding good cards, but of playing a poor hand well.”
–Josh Billings (pseudonym of Henry Wheeler Shaw), Josh Billings on Ice, and Other Things (1868) (erroneously attributed to Robert Louis Stevenson, among others)
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Nexus
Taking the government’s six proffered circumstances which they claim add up to reasonable suspicion, the court finds them lacking on the totality. But, as defendant was being pulled over, he fled, and that made reasonable suspicion. United State v. Shelton, … Continue reading
“The trial court decided the facts were sufficient to justify a Terry stop. After taking account of the totality of the circumstances, we reverse the denial of Maxfield’s motion to quash arrest and suppress the identification and other evidence obtained, … Continue reading
Defendant’s Franks challenge that included allegations that alternative suspects weren’t identified fails. State v. Garcia, 315 Neb. 74 (Sep. 7, 2023). There was no reasonable suspicion to detain defendant for a dog sniff. He answered all the officer’s questions, and … Continue reading
Defense counsel’s failure to seek the IAD file on the officers at a suppression hearing wasn’t ineffective assistance of counsel. The searching officer had an alleged propensity to exaggerate and excessively strip search. Here, however, another officer was there to … Continue reading
“Christopher Montalvo-Flores moved to suppress evidence the Government obtained in its search of his girlfriend’s rental car. The District Court denied his motion, holding that he failed to show he had a reasonable expectation of privacy in that vehicle. We … Continue reading
The affiant for the warrant failed to show nexus, but there was enough nexus for the good faith exception to apply. United States v. Westley, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22357 (6th Cir. Aug. 22, 2023):
“More to the point, however, is the irrelevance of any officer negligence in this habeas corpus case. Stone v. Powell bars habeas corpus consideration of Fourth Amendment claims as a basis for habeas relief. There is no ‘inadvertent negligence’ exception … Continue reading
There was no reasonable suspicion for defendant’s stop days after he was seen on the street. “Perhaps if the officers had stopped J.T. and his red-sweatshirt-wearing companion nearby the church immediately after the shooting, the totality of the circumstances could … Continue reading
The government subpoenaed emails from defendant. Suspecting that some were deleted, a search warrant was issued for his account, and the missing emails were found. Thus, the sentence was enhanced for destruction of evidence under U.S.S.G. § 3C1.1. United States … Continue reading
Defendant got off a Greyhound bus in Omaha during a driver change. The officers just barely had reasonable suspicion to detain defendant, and pulling his blanket off amounted to a search. That enabled the officer to see he had a … Continue reading
Information on defendant’s cell phone linking him and Trafficker A also linked his home to the transactions and that showed nexus. United States v. Johnson, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 130082 (W.D. Va. July 27, 2023).* The information about defendant’s drug … Continue reading
“Contrary to defendant’s contention, the CI’s basis of knowledge was not undermined by the fact that the CI did not actually enter the apartment during the controlled buys …. A sufficient nexus to the apartment was established by the continuous … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: Claim of exaggerated facts doesn’t state Franks violation without showing intent to mislead
Defendant’s claim that the officer exaggerated some facts in the affidavit for warrant didn’t state a Franks challenge without an allegation it was done to mislead. United States v. Delgado, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 121793 (E.D.Mich. July 14, 2023). “The … Continue reading
Where the search warrant sought clothing worn during a shooting, nexus was shown to where defendant lived. State v. Johnson, 2023 Del. Super. LEXIS 324 (July 7, 2023). There was probable cause for plaintiff’s arrest for harassment of another person. … Continue reading
The police community caretaking function has a long and important history that goes back nearly 800 years. But, seeing defendant parked in the snow with the engine running and apparently asleep, opening his car door to check on him was … Continue reading
The search warrant for defendant’s new place was issued a year after the crime, but the affidavit showed the police they were involved in a long and intense investigation. Moreover, some specific evidence had not been located, and, even though … Continue reading
Mere presence of FBI and other law enforcement officers at USPO’s search based on reasonable suspicion did not make the PO a “stalking horse” for the police. United States v. Borges-Sánchez, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 66017 (D.P.R. Apr. 14, 2023). … Continue reading
A city ordinance regulating trees was not a Fourth Amendment seizure because the trees were not on the curtilage of a home and weren’t independently subject to the Fourth Amendment. (Otherwise, a taking occurred, and that’s way outside the scope … Continue reading
Defendant’s possession of a cell phone at the time of his allegedly committing an assault was not probable cause to search the phone. Motion to suppress granted as to it. People v. Vergara, 2023 NY Slip Op 23083, 2023 N.Y. … Continue reading
With second counsel, defendant filed a second motion to suppress apparently based on new strategy about how to approach one. The different strategy is not “good cause” based on newly discovered facts. United States v. Vazquez, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading