- CA3: Finding suspect near bank that was just robbed generally matching description but with short sleeves in winter was RS
- CA9: UA in prison is reasonable
- Boston CBS: Justice Department: Springfield Police Narcotics Bureau Regularly Used Excessive Force
- Gizmodo: Law Enforcement Is Buying Its Way Into Our Breaches
- MT: Field test of seized drugs is a reasonable search
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Search incident
Defendant’s arrest for burglary, a violent crime, and his uncooperativeness justified a search incident of his backpack for possible weapons. People v. Mabry, 2020 NY Slip Op 03540, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 3583 (2d Dept. June 24, 2020). There … Continue reading
Alleged Brady material found two years after the search warrant in this case would not have changed the outcome of the search issue. United States v. Vandyck, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 101842 (D. Ariz. June 10, 2020). The officer was … Continue reading
Arrest for OUI permits a search incident of the interior of defendant’s car for evidence of the offense under Gant based at least on reasonable suspicion. “[P1] We review a decision of the court of appeals affirming the circuit court … Continue reading
“In the instant case, as in Perdoma, even though Hill was handcuffed at the time of the search, the circumstances leading up to the search justified the warrantless search. Hill, the subject of a valid arrest warrant, appeared to be … Continue reading
AR: No abuse of discretion in not forcing state to disclose that which it couldn’t get from HBO camera crew being at search
An HBO crew was present at the drug raid here while filming “Meth Storm.”The prosecutor didn’t know about it until the eve of trial, and he sought to get the video and couldn’t, and he disclosed to the defense. The … Continue reading
An open container violation is an offense justifying a search of a vehicle for more. United States v. Hoskins, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 90256 (E.D. Wis. May 22, 2020).* The stop reached the level of reasonable suspicion before dispatch responded, … Continue reading
LA1: Claim probation violation warrant lacked justification that led to search incident has to be argued on appeal
Defendant claimed his probation violation arrest warrant was defective and then argued the search incident to his arrest was thus invalid. On appeal, he doesn’t argue the validity of the arrest warrant, so the argument is waived. State v. Anglin, … Continue reading
Any ruse to get consent to search defendant’s bags after TSA was done with them came after consent was given and wasn’t considered. United States v. Benjamin, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 14755 (11th Cir. May 8, 2020). Defendant was lawfully … Continue reading
Defendant at first consented to the government holding and then searching his cell phone and laptop. The next day he revoked his consent on the computer. The government continued to hold the laptop to preserve evidence and got a search … Continue reading
Possession of <100g marijuana is a nonarrestable offense, so a search incident was unreasonable. State v. R.L., 2020-Ohio-2811, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 1774 (9th Dist. May 6, 2020). Without a motion to suppress, there’s no vehicle for development of a … Continue reading
Defendant was stopped in a shopping center parking lot for suspicion of shoplifting a sweatshirt. He consented to a frisk of his person and car, and nothing was found. Another officer arrived, and he was de facto arrested. A search … Continue reading
Despite his being handcuffed, a search incident of defendant’s backpack was reasonable because he could still try to access it. (First holding was abandonment for disavowing the backpack). United States v. Ferebee, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 12940 (4th Cir. Apr. … Continue reading
CA3: Police in pursuit of a shooting suspect crossed into def’s backyard; plain view of drugs sustained
Police were in pursuit of a shooting suspect and went into defendant’s back yard. Drugs in plain view could be seized. Levys v. Shamlin, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 13267 (3d Cir. Apr. 24, 2020). An open container stop permits a … Continue reading
Use of excessive bodily force for a stop-and-frisk by lifting defendant into a wall was unreasonable where defendant did nothing to justify it. That required suppressing the stop. State v. Johnson, 2020-Ohio-2742, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 1707 (2d Dist. May … Continue reading
Defendant was stopped for sitting in a park with his bicycle after hours, a violation of a county ordinance. The search incident of his backpack for this offense violated the Florida Constitution. Booker v. State, 2020 Fla. App. LEXIS 5718 … Continue reading