- CA6: SW with wrong address and color of building was still particular enough in location
- CA9: Changing allegedly offending officer in Franks challenge on appeal was waiver
- CA6: State court’s failure to remand for more factfinding was still a “full and fair opportunity to litigate” his 4A claim
- TX: Totality of affidavit justified on totality SW for surveillance videos even though affidavit didn’t explicitly say so
- E.D.Tenn.: Def doesn’t even attempt a Franks offer of proof and it fails
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Search incident
The trial court did not apply the beyond a reasonable doubt standard to the search, contrary to the state’s argument. It did apply the preponderance standard, and the record supports its finding that the state failed to show probable cause … Continue reading
“Because the Eleventh Circuit has not yet addressed this issue, the Court has carefully considered the reasoning of the Lyle and Bettis cases and concludes, in line with the Second Circuit, that the unlicensed driver of a rental car should … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Search of def’s fanny pack wasn’t valid as search incident, but it was valid because he disclaimed it
Defendant’s front license plate being on the dashboard and not affixed to the car was a traffic offense that justified his stop. “Perhaps Giles recognizes that there was probable cause to arrest him after he refused to pull over and … Continue reading
CA4: Seizure of firearm was inevitable; def would have been arrested for DUI and searched incident to arrest anyway
“[W]e conclude that the district court did not err in crediting the arresting officer’s testimony and finding that the arresting officer had probable cause to arrest Herman for driving under the influence. We further conclude that the district court did … Continue reading
N.-M.: Search incident of gym bag valid as incident to arrest when def asked for the bag to be transported with him
Defendant was assigned to Anchorage as a Marine recruiter and ended up being charged with sexual assault. On his arrest by the APD, the search incident of defendant’s gym bag for weapons incident to his arrest was valid. He asked … Continue reading
Defendant was arrested in the San Antonio airport, and his luggage came with him to airport jail. The suitcase as a “receptacle must inevitably accompany him into custody, a warrantless search of that receptacle at or near the time of … Continue reading
CA5: Search for ptf’s ID was reasonable when she refused to ID self and was charged with obstruction
The search of plaintiff’s wallet for her ID was reasonable when she refused to identify herself when stalled on an interstate highway. A search of the car for her wallet and then the search of the wallet was thus reasonable … Continue reading
TX7: Trial court’s initially misstating burden of proof was on def was corrected in the ultimate findings
The trial court first stated that the burden on consent was on the defendant, but the ultimate findings of fact and conclusions of law concluded that the state proved it by sufficient evidence. This corrected the previous mistake, and the … Continue reading
Defendant was lawfully stopped for riding his bicycle on the sidewalk over a bridge, but it was only an infraction and a search incident was unreasonable. United States v. Harris, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 145000 (E.D. Cal. Aug. 12, 2020). … Continue reading
A notebook in defendant’s purse was properly searched incident to her arrest, even without probable cause it contained evidence. United States v. Ouedraogo, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 25519 (11th Cir. Aug. 12, 2020):
Defendant’s arrest for burglary, a violent crime, and his uncooperativeness justified a search incident of his backpack for possible weapons. People v. Mabry, 2020 NY Slip Op 03540, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 3583 (2d Dept. June 24, 2020). There … Continue reading
Alleged Brady material found two years after the search warrant in this case would not have changed the outcome of the search issue. United States v. Vandyck, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 101842 (D. Ariz. June 10, 2020). The officer was … Continue reading
Arrest for OUI permits a search incident of the interior of defendant’s car for evidence of the offense under Gant based at least on reasonable suspicion. “[P1] We review a decision of the court of appeals affirming the circuit court … Continue reading
“In the instant case, as in Perdoma, even though Hill was handcuffed at the time of the search, the circumstances leading up to the search justified the warrantless search. Hill, the subject of a valid arrest warrant, appeared to be … Continue reading
AR: No abuse of discretion in not forcing state to disclose that which it couldn’t get from HBO camera crew being at search
An HBO crew was present at the drug raid here while filming “Meth Storm.”The prosecutor didn’t know about it until the eve of trial, and he sought to get the video and couldn’t, and he disclosed to the defense. The … Continue reading