- FL2: There was suspicion for the stop, but it wasn’t reasonable suspicion
- CA2: Three judges approved of these SWs, there was PC and GF
- E.D.Tenn.: Def wasn’t removed to avoid his being asked for consent under Randolph
- D.N.M.: While the govt didn’t prove exigency, inventory exception applied
- E.D.N.C.: Some deception to gain entry is permitted, but this one went too far
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. about 30,000 posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Category Archives: Search incident
There may have been suspicion for defendant’s stop, but it wasn’t reasonable suspicion. He was potentially dumpster driving at a closed business at night, and he left when he saw the police officer. Vonlydick v. State, 2021 Fla. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
The search incident exception supported the search here because it was factually and legally appropriate except for the fact that the actual arrest didn’t occur until months later. The officers chose not to arrest at that moment. United States v. … Continue reading
Defendant’s impending surgery was an exigent circumstance for a warrantless blood draw. “We have held that imminent medical care that threatens to destroy BAC evidence through blood transfusions, intravenous fluids, or natural dissipation over time may create exigent circumstances. … … Continue reading
The trial court did not apply the beyond a reasonable doubt standard to the search, contrary to the state’s argument. It did apply the preponderance standard, and the record supports its finding that the state failed to show probable cause … Continue reading
“Because the Eleventh Circuit has not yet addressed this issue, the Court has carefully considered the reasoning of the Lyle and Bettis cases and concludes, in line with the Second Circuit, that the unlicensed driver of a rental car should … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Search of def’s fanny pack wasn’t valid as search incident, but it was valid because he disclaimed it
Defendant’s front license plate being on the dashboard and not affixed to the car was a traffic offense that justified his stop. “Perhaps Giles recognizes that there was probable cause to arrest him after he refused to pull over and … Continue reading
CA4: Seizure of firearm was inevitable; def would have been arrested for DUI and searched incident to arrest anyway
“[W]e conclude that the district court did not err in crediting the arresting officer’s testimony and finding that the arresting officer had probable cause to arrest Herman for driving under the influence. We further conclude that the district court did … Continue reading
N.-M.: Search incident of gym bag valid as incident to arrest when def asked for the bag to be transported with him
Defendant was assigned to Anchorage as a Marine recruiter and ended up being charged with sexual assault. On his arrest by the APD, the search incident of defendant’s gym bag for weapons incident to his arrest was valid. He asked … Continue reading
Defendant was arrested in the San Antonio airport, and his luggage came with him to airport jail. The suitcase as a “receptacle must inevitably accompany him into custody, a warrantless search of that receptacle at or near the time of … Continue reading
CA5: Search for ptf’s ID was reasonable when she refused to ID self and was charged with obstruction
The search of plaintiff’s wallet for her ID was reasonable when she refused to identify herself when stalled on an interstate highway. A search of the car for her wallet and then the search of the wallet was thus reasonable … Continue reading
TX7: Trial court’s initially misstating burden of proof was on def was corrected in the ultimate findings
The trial court first stated that the burden on consent was on the defendant, but the ultimate findings of fact and conclusions of law concluded that the state proved it by sufficient evidence. This corrected the previous mistake, and the … Continue reading
Defendant was lawfully stopped for riding his bicycle on the sidewalk over a bridge, but it was only an infraction and a search incident was unreasonable. United States v. Harris, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 145000 (E.D. Cal. Aug. 12, 2020). … Continue reading
A notebook in defendant’s purse was properly searched incident to her arrest, even without probable cause it contained evidence. United States v. Ouedraogo, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 25519 (11th Cir. Aug. 12, 2020):
Defendant’s arrest for burglary, a violent crime, and his uncooperativeness justified a search incident of his backpack for possible weapons. People v. Mabry, 2020 NY Slip Op 03540, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 3583 (2d Dept. June 24, 2020). There … Continue reading
Alleged Brady material found two years after the search warrant in this case would not have changed the outcome of the search issue. United States v. Vandyck, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 101842 (D. Ariz. June 10, 2020). The officer was … Continue reading