- CT Tax & Admin.: Order to DoC employees to their search cell phones for public records was excessive
- N.D.N.Y.: Mere disagreement with state court 4A determination still bars habeas review
- E.D.N.C.: Removing protective sweep from affidavit for SW still leaves PC
- TN: No right to reconsideration of denial of motion to suppress on transfer to a different trial judge after denial
- CA6: Officer executing a state arrest warrant doesn’t have to independently verify its validity
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Excessive force
WaPo: Louisville agrees to $12 million payout and policing changes in pact with family of Breonna Taylor, killed in police raid by Tim Craig & Marisa Iati (“The city of Louisville announced a $12 million settlement Tuesday with the family … Continue reading
WaPo: Safety and ethics worries sidelined a ‘heat ray’ for years. The feds asked about using it on protesters.
WaPo: Safety and ethics worries sidelined a ‘heat ray’ for years. The feds asked about using it on protesters. by Tim Elfrink (“Every few years since 2001, the military has invited reporters to get zapped by a ‘heat ray.’ The … Continue reading
A police dog bit plaintiff while he was handcuffed and on the ground. That’s excessive force if a jury believes it was gratuitous. Qualified immunity denied. Hammond v. County of Oakland, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 28285 (9th Cir. Sept. 4, … Continue reading
“This fatal shooting ‘lies so obviously at the very core of what the Fourth Amendment prohibits that the unlawfulness of the conduct was readily apparent’ even without a prior case on point.” No qualified immunity. Cantu v. City of Dothan, … Continue reading
The officers’ smell of raw marijuana at a house was probable cause. This is different than the case of burnt marijuana not justifying a search of the trunk of a car. In an IAC claim, defendant didn’t plead any evidence … Continue reading
The Intercept: Her Former Colleagues Called in a “Wellness Check.” Then Police Shot Her to Death. by Natasha Lennard (“The killing of Sandy Guardiola at the hands of a cop illustrates the limitations of brutal, armed police responding to community … Continue reading
The consensus of several other circuits is that seizing property under a search warrant is not subject to the Fifth Amendment’s takings clause. See, e.g., Lech v. Jackson, 791 Fed. Appx. 711, 717 (10th Cir. 2019), cert. denied, No. 19-1123, … Continue reading
N.D.Cal.: “chemical agents, less lethal projectiles such as rubber bullets and flashbang grenades” against peaceful protesters states enough to stay in court
Plaintiffs were alleged peaceful protesters in Oakland claiming excessive force was used against them: “chemical agents, less lethal projectiles such as rubber bullets and flashbang grenades.” They provided video evidence. They stated enough of a claim at this point to … Continue reading
Plaintiff stated a claim that overcame qualified immunity that she was handcuffed too tight causing injury. Ouza v. City of Dearborn Heights, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 24679 (6th Cir. Aug. 5, 2020).* 2255 petitioner’s Fourth Amendment claim is barred by … Continue reading
Plaintiff was taken down because he didn’t properly respond to commands, and he suffered facial injuries. He was, however, so intoxicated and couldn’t remember what happened. He was also Tased. It was all reasonable based on what the officer was … Continue reading
When officers, including the SWAT team, came to arrest the decedent, he had a gun in hand and raised it. He was already known to be potentially violent, and the shooting was reasonable under the circumstances. Estate of Valverde v. … Continue reading
There was a factual basis for trial that it was apparent the use of deadly force here was unreasonable and unnecessary in shooting at a fleeing car. Reavis v. Frost, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 23731 (10th Cir. July 28, 2020).* … Continue reading
Tasering a resisting suspect is reasonable, and the video shows it. Siders v. City of Eastpointe, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 23454 (6th Cir. July 24, 2020).* The controlled buy off defendant was clearly probable cause for the search warrant, so … Continue reading
“The district court correctly determined that Ford lacked standing to challenge the officers’ entry into the hotel room under the Fourth Amendment because any reasonable expectation of privacy Ford had in the room, which had been rented by Ford’s co-defendant … Continue reading