- LA3: Cell phone ping to locate def in a shooting investigation was exigent
- Marshall Project: I ‘Stood My Ground’ — but It Was the Police Raiding My House
- NYLJ: New York’s Red Flag Law Raises a Red Flag for the Fourth Amendment
- D.P.R.: Cell phone records obtained by SW not self-authenticating as evidence under 902(11)
- W.D.Wis.: No habeas relief for unlawful arrest
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
"Life is not a matter of holding good cards, but of playing a poor hand well."
–Josh Billings (pseudonym of Henry Wheeler Shaw), Josh Billings on Ice, and Other Things (1868) (erroneously attributed to Robert Louis Stevenson, among others)
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”
---Pepé Le Pew "The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Excessive force
LA2: Arrest allegedly in violation of 4A leads to officer’s indictment, which is quashed because of justification
The officer here was charged with malfeasance in office for violating the Fourth Amendment by handcuffing a detainee for whom he was told there was an arrest warrant after he revoked consent to search: “I have someone you can talk … Continue reading
An FBI 302 mentioned a search warrant, and all of this in context did not amount to a Brady violation. Reyes v. State, 2023 Conn. App. LEXIS 272 (Nov. 28, 2023). “We conclude, based on the record, that the district … Continue reading
“Without any further attempts to subdue Sligh without the use of a dog bite, and without providing Sligh any warning that she may be subjected to a dog bite if she did not comply, Sutton sicced a dog on a … Continue reading
The bodycam video of plaintiff’s altercation with two hospital security guards showed they were entitled to qualified immunity. Scott v. Harris. Bouvier v. City of Covington, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 30822 (11th Cir. Nov. 20, 2023).* In excessive force cases, … Continue reading
CA8: Officer corroborated only CI’s objective information, not the crux, but that was enough for PC for automobile exception
There was no corroboration of the incriminating part of the CI’s tale that defendant, a convicted felon, kept a gun hidden under the hood of his car. “But Officer Princivalli had no reason to find Moore’s statements untrustworthy or unreliable. … Continue reading
CA11: Gov’t adequately protected against A-C materials being searched in border search of Venezuelan attorney’s cell phone; “no privileged material was ever found”
Defendant was a Venezuelan attorney whose cell phone was searched at the border. He said there likely was privileged attorney-client information on his phone, but it was searched under a DHS protocols to safeguard privileged information and legal advice was … Continue reading
If officers saw defendant’s .22 during a protective sweep, the Fourth Amendment doesn’t require that it be seized immediately. It can be seized during execution of the later issued search warrant. A .22 is not a weapon of choice for … Continue reading
IL: In this forfeiture seizure, the car could not be inventoried; contents were to be returned to the owner
Officers attempted a stop of a vehicle potentially involved in an earlier occurrence. Instead of stopping, the driver fled from the stop in the car. Instead of pursuing, officers had the LPN and went to where it was registered, and … Continue reading
Rejecting state law to the contrary, the district court holds that there is no reasonable expectation of privacy in the common area of an apartment building under the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Love, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 186921 (E.D. … Continue reading
WI: Forensic search of electronics two months after seizure didn’t violate state statute on execution of SW
A search warrant was timely “executed” when the electronic device was seized within five days per the warrant and state law, even though the forensic search didn’t take place for two more months. “[W]e emphasize that in this appeal Drachenberg … Continue reading
Pretext for a criminal search can be an issue in administrative searches. “Accordingly, the district court erred in failing to recognize the existence of a genuine issue of material fact as to whether the February 2015 administrative search was focused … Continue reading
The R&R determined that defendant parolee had no reasonable expectation of privacy in the place searched because of his parole status alone. The District Judge disagrees, finds enough standing to contest the search, and remands to the USMJ to decide … Continue reading
Plain view: “In the case before us, the evidence showed that it was immediately apparent to Officer Yanez, i.e., he had probable cause to believe, that the white pills in the blue-tinted, knotted baggie were illegal narcotics based on his … Continue reading
There’s no reasonable expectation of privacy or standing in someone else’s cell phone. State v. Hunt, 2023 Del. Super. LEXIS 775 (Sep. 19, 2023).* Defendant was mistaken that GX48 for trial was the product of a search warrant. It wasn’t. … Continue reading
“A hypothetically reasonable officer in Brown’s situation would have probable cause to believe that Kohler posed a threat of serious physical harm to himself and to the other officers when he used deadly force. That officer could reasonably conclude that … Continue reading
Where the defense was consent, the alleged ineffective assistance of counsel in failing to move to suppress DNA results can’t be ineffectiveness. State v. Elder, 2023 Del. Super. LEXIS 770 (Sep. 13, 2023).* CBP officers used an “escort hold” on … Continue reading
The officer’s alleged excessive force in allegedly unnecessarily pulling his service weapon during defendant’s stop is not causally connected to the finding of the drugs (see Hudson), so the exclusionary rule does not apply. United States v. Coe, 2023 U.S. … Continue reading
The target of a search warrant can’t yet get access to the affidavit in support because the case is still under investigation and there is a potential of exposing grand jury witnesses. In re Search Warrants Issued November 30, 2022, … Continue reading
“But this court concluded that ‘Plaintiff-Appellees’ claims against Officer Currie … fall under the Fourth Amendment.’ [Mayfield, 976 F.3d at 486 n.1.] As that opinion explained, ‘in order to bring a First Amendment claim for retaliatory arrest, a plaintiff generally … Continue reading
“Daniel has not demonstrated that the omission of the initial car search’s fruitlessness from the affidavit amounted to a deliberate falsehood or showed reckless disregard for the truth.” United States v. Daniel, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 21751 (6th Cir. Aug. … Continue reading