- W.D.Pa.: Generic motion to suppress denied
- D.N.M.: Detention hearing argument that there were “dispositive” 4A issues goes nowhere
- CA9: Inaccuracies in SW’s place to be searched didn’t misdirect officers; QI applies
- M.D.Pa.: Franks hearing denied for speculation on what video evidence might show
- AR: One can’t change 4A argument from trial court to appeal
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Informant hearsay
Police received a CI’s tip defendant had a gun. The tip alone lacked reliability until the officer saw defendant discard it. “Notably, the reasonable suspicion standard does not present the most demanding hurdle to overcome. See Kansas v. Glover, 140 … Continue reading
The state’s justification for inquiries about travel plans isn’t reached on appeal because it wasn’t briefed or even developed below. Instead, the questions about it related only to initial reasonable suspicion. “We conclude that the record could have developed differently … Continue reading
Crime Stoppers tip was sufficiently corroborated to show probable cause [under Gates]. United States v. Gaston, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 65724 (D. Minn. Apr. 5, 2021):
CA4: Officers watching def on a CI’s tip saw a handshake which they surmised was a drug sale; no RS from a handshake
“In order to sustain reasonable suspicion, officers must consider the totality of the circumstances and, in doing so, must not overlook facts that tend to dispel reasonable suspicion. Here, officers relied on general information from a confidential informant; two interactions … Continue reading
As to an alleged false statement by the CI, it didn’t undermine the probable cause finding. People v. Cazeau, 2021 NY Slip Op 01806, 2021 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 1947 (3d Dept. Mar. 25, 2021) (nearly four years from judgment … Continue reading
Informant hearsay once removed was still probable cause. The CI enlisted another to go get drugs from defendant and brought them back to the CI who turned them over to the police. United States v. Bacon, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
The search warrant here was particular because it incorporated the affidavit by reference, and they were attached. United States v. Evans Landscaping Inc., 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 8152 (6th Cir. Mar. 18, 2021). Defendant has no reasonable expectation of privacy … Continue reading
The search warrant here was based on the CI’s relating largely publicly-known information, some of which was in the newspaper online. It wasn’t predictive, but all historical of criminal record, the kind of car, etc. This is close but no … Continue reading
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not raising spousal privilege to recorded jail telephone calls since there was no reasonable expectation of privacy in the calls where spousal privilege in this context hadn’t been raised before in the state. State v. … Continue reading
A crime victim has a right to return of property pending an investigation if the state doesn’t need it for court. “Our ruling today does not undermine the City’s interest in protecting sensitive records regarding ongoing criminal investigations. Ms. Burton … Continue reading
D.Minn.: Information from named security guard passing on detailed hearsay from unidentified source in 911 call was reliable
The 911 caller here was an identified security guard who passed on detailed information he’d received from a source. The detail made it reliable enough for reasonable suspicion. United States v. Valenzuela, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 50262 (D. Minn. Feb. … Continue reading
The anonymous tip here wasn’t sufficiently corroborated to make reasonable suspicion. The evidence supports the district court’s conclusion. United States v. Norbert, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 7620 (5th Cir. Mar. 16, 2021) (2-1):
D.Idaho: Traffic stop was admitted pretextual but it was based on RS of a drug offense and otherwise objectively reasonable
Defendant’s traffic stop was admittedly pretextual to investigate a drug offense, and the officers had reasonable suspicion on collective knowledge to justify the stop. United States v. Tuschoff, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 47130 (D. Idaho Mar. 10, 2021). The CI … Continue reading
The anonymous 911 call about flashing a gun at children satisfied Navarette. The officer was a mile from the place mentioned in the report and arrived shortly thereafter and saw the person the call reported. While the 911 caller could … Continue reading
A citizen informant told police of a motorist that might need assistance, and that led to defendant’s arrest. There is no constitutional requirement for police to interrogate the citizen informant. State v. Montoya, 29 Neb. App. 563, 2021 Neb. App. … Continue reading
CI was not shown to be sufficiently reliable by an attempt to corroborate her to justify defendant’s stop and subsequent search. “Unlike a citizen informant calling 911, a criminal informant is not presumed to be acting out of civic responsibility. … Continue reading
People v. Washington, 2021 Cal. App. LEXIS 196 (2d Dist. Mar. 9, 2021):
N.D.Ohio: “Days-old sale” of ½ ounce of marijuana didn’t justify wholesale search of records at home
The affidavit for search warrant based on an uncorroborated CI for sale of a ½ ounce of marijuana failed to show probable cause and it did not justify a search for virtually every document in the house or on his … Continue reading
The target of a search warrant long ago served is entitled to unsealing the affidavit, but the government can redact the affiant’s name and identifying information. United States v. Storage Room Numbers, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 35977 (E.D. N.Y. Feb. … Continue reading