- MN: Another’s outside storage unit at an apartment building found because its key was found during a search of the apt couldn’t be searched under apt SW
- CO: Def’s DNA was unlawfully collected in a juvenile proceeding and entered into CODIS, and the exclusionary rule is applied
- W.D.Va.: § 1983 case over same search lost in state court is barred by Heck
- LA1: Changing suppression issue on appeal from lack of PC to arrest to an unreasonable search is waiver of the issue
- S.D.N.Y.: Exclusionary rule doesn’t apply to federal supervised release hearings
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Subpoenas / Nat’l Security Letters
A prosecutor and state investigator subpoenaed plaintiff’s work emails from Penn State. They get qualified immunity because there was no clearly established law that the subpoena was invalid. Plaintiff argues the evolving standards of the reasonable expectation of privacy in … Continue reading
CA5: Texas medical board’s forthwith subpoena was shown not to be pretextual for criminal investigative purpose
Plaintiff is a doctor running a clinic dispensing opiods, and the Texas medical board got a forthwith administrative subpoena out for him and seized records. The defendants get qualified immunity. It’s not clear that doctors are a closely regulated industry … Continue reading
D.Conn.: A safe could be searched under SW in a homicide case; logical place for weapon or ammunition
There was probable cause to search a safe found in defendant’s house for evidence in a murder case because the firearms, ammunition, clothing, or electronic devices could be there. United States v. Fable, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 129527 (D. Conn. … Continue reading
W.D.Va.: Use of a summons under 19 U.S.C. § 1509 to obtain information to prosecute defendant for CP doesn’t violate 4A
The government used a summons under 19 U.S.C. § 1509 to obtain information to prosecute defendant for child pornography. Use of § 1509 didn’t violate the Fourth Amendment, and there’s no exclusionary rule for violation anyway. Defendant’s claim that the … Continue reading
W.D.Okla.: DOJ subpoena issued under the Right to Financial Privacy Act was “relevant to [a] law enforcement inquiry”
A DOJ subpoena issued under the Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978, 12 U.S.C. §§ 3401-3422 (“RFPA”). “Having carefully reviewed the United States’ detailed response, the Court finds that there is a reasonable belief that the records sought are … Continue reading
A state AG’s subpoena was issued for a prisoner’s medical records, but not in a criminal investigation. Enough cases, especially in this circuit, hold there is a reasonable expectation of privacy in medical records to overcome qualified immunity. In addition, … Continue reading
The government’s conclusory statement in a grand jury subpoena that a gag order was needed is inadequate to satisfy the requirement of the Stored Wire and Electronic Communications and Transactional Records Access, 18 U.S.C. § 2701 et seq. In re … Continue reading
An application for a gag order against grand jury witnesses was insufficient. “The application as currently submitted fails to establish sufficient grounds for a non-disclosure order. First, a particularized showing of need has not been made and, instead, the application … Continue reading
Defendant’s medical records from the state he was extradited from were not unlawfully obtained under HIPAA or the Uniform Act for Obtaining Witnesses from Without State. A “subpoena” under the act includes subpoenas duces tecum. Moreover, even if HIPAA had … Continue reading
Defense counsel’s misapprehension of the application of McNeely to blood test results was ineffective assistance of counsel. If a motion to suppress had been made, it would have been granted. Briggs v. State, 2017 Tex. App. LEXIS 10891 (Tex. App. … Continue reading
CNET: Microsoft drops suit over Justice Dept.’s secret data requests by Steven Musil: The move comes after the Justice Department says it would scale back demands for customer data without their knowledge. WaPo: Justice Department moves to end routine gag … Continue reading