- NJ.com: Murphy vetoes bills requiring cops to use body cameras, citing cost and privacy concerns
- N.D.Ohio: Giving a drug courier a duffel bag doesn’t allow one to retain standing under a bailment or joint possession theory
- CA7: Ptf was a trespasser who had no REP
- CA1: Gunshot from within while waiting for SW justified entry and sweep
- D.D.C.: Search of def’s fanny pack wasn’t valid as search incident, but it was valid because he disclaimed it
online since Feb. 24, 2003
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Issue preclusion
A ShotSpotter report was specific as to a shot coming from a rooftop in the Bronx. That house was the subject of many police calls. This led to defendants being encountered by officers who discussed with them what was going … Continue reading
Habeas petitioner’s allegation state court decision on his Fourth Amendment claim was erroneous isn’t enough to get appellate review under Stone. CoA denied. Cisneros v. Sec’y, Dept. of Correction, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 30618 (11th Cir. Sept. 24, 2020).* There … Continue reading
W.D.Ky.: Def’s “Twitter page is rife with references to drug dealing and weapon possession” and that was PC
Defendant’s “Twitter page is rife with references to drug dealing and weapon possession. Lewis’ prior relationship with Doaty, coupled with Doaty’s own statements, corroborated her information and made it sufficiently reliable to justify a search of his vehicle.” It was … Continue reading
Defendant had his opportunity to litigate his Fourth Amendment claim in state court, and that bars habeas relief. Mere disagreement isn’t enough under Stone. Smith v. Superintendent, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 171480 (N.D. N.Y. Sept. 17, 2020)*:
Defendant’s CSLI claim can’t be brought as a successor habeas petition. Carpenter isn’t retroactive. In re Witherspoon, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 29717 (11th Cir. Sept. 17, 2020). Defendant was in a stolen vehicle and had a backpack in it while … Continue reading
Plaintiff challenged UA drug tests administered by the VA because the doctors there were trying to wean him off opiates. Those tests were reasonable under the special needs exception and for medical purposes. Gorney v. Veterans Administration, 2020 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
CA5: § 1983 4A claim that evidence was inadmissible at trial was Heck barred, and then waived on appeal
Plaintiff’s § 1983 Fourth Amendment claim was framed as a claim the evidence was inadmissible at trial. Thus it was barred. His appeal was over denial of IFP status, which was also denied, and he waived the Fourth Amendment claim … Continue reading
School administrator’s direction to a student to remove shoes was not a strip search. I.S. v. Binghamton City Sch. Dist., 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 167370 (N.D. N.Y. Sept. 14, 2020). 2254 petitioner litigated and lost his illegal arrest claim in … Continue reading
2254 petitioner was barred from a CSLI claim because it wasn’t raised in state court where he had an opportunity to litigate. It’s no defense to attempt to overcome Stone preclusion that Carpenter came after the trial court decision because … Continue reading
Police received a 911 call that a man was carrying an “AK”-like long gun, hiding from passersby, and was apparently going to rob a store. Defendant was encountered openly carrying a gun, legal conduct, but he wasn’t hiding because the … Continue reading
Defendant and companion observed buying drugs from someone on the street in a car and getting back to their car was reasonable suspicion. “There was ‘more’ here [than in Ybarra], however, for the officer had been told that two men … Continue reading
Plaintiff stated a claim that overcame qualified immunity that she was handcuffed too tight causing injury. Ouza v. City of Dearborn Heights, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 24679 (6th Cir. Aug. 5, 2020).* 2255 petitioner’s Fourth Amendment claim is barred by … Continue reading
A preliminary determination of probable cause by a justice of the peace that is not appealed is not entitled to preclusive effect under state law. Therefore, plaintiff states a claim for relief for his alleged false arrest despite that. Scafidi … Continue reading
A factual mistake in a state court’s decision on defendant’s Fourth Amendment claim for the inventory of his property still doesn’t merit habeas relief. Marling v. Littlejohn, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 21616 (7th Cir. July 13, 2020). Plaintiff’s claim for … Continue reading
E.D.Cal.: Question for Stone v. Powell is: does the state provide a mechanism for “full and fair litigation” of a 4A claim, not whether def took advantage of it
The question for Stone v. Powell is: does the state provide a mechanism for “full and fair litigation” of a Fourth Amendment claim, not whether defendant took advantage of it. Barrera v. Sherman, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 118199 (E.D. Cal. … Continue reading