- PBS: Police are now taking roadside blood samples to catch impaired drivers
- Law.com: ‘Carpenter’ Squared: Review and Reconcile State Court Cases Impacted by Landmark SCOTUS Decision
- WY: New facts after the stop not required if there was RS all along
- AR: Claim of misstatement or incorrect fact in SW affidavit doesn’t state Franks claim without allegation it was reckless or intentional
- E.D.Ky.: RS of drugs doesn’t automatically mean “armed and dangerous”
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 25k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
2017 ABA Journal Web 100
Category Archives: Burden of proof
D.N.J.: Presentation of fake driver’s license to get car from impound after alleged unlawful seizure was new crime and attenuated
Defendant’s presentation of a fake driver’s licenses to recover his car would not be suppressed. The argument that it is connected to defendant’s alleged unlawful seizure of the car fails because it was attenuated. United States v. Minaya, 2019 U.S. … Continue reading
“Because the affidavit is not part of the record and because the Defendant includes no argument regarding the validity of the search warrant, we consider any challenge to the search conducted pursuant to the search warrant waived.” State v. Green, … Continue reading
In a petition for return of firearms seized from an alleged dangerous person, the state didn’t put on proof of anything recent, so the petition should have been granted. Redington v. State, 2019 Ind. App. LEXIS 146 (Apr. 5, 2019). … Continue reading
“An appellant making an unconstitutional seizure claim has the burden of proving that a seizure occurred. … [¶] Here, Yang consented to Koster’s entry. Throughout their time in the house, Lucas and Koster told Ho what they were doing. They … Continue reading
A search warrant must be executed reasonably, and it depends on which side has knowledge of what for the burden of proof. Here, the issue involves a blood draw at a hospital, and defendant has access to that information, and … Continue reading
OH5: To prove GFE doesn’t apply, the defense has to show bad faith [never mind that the burden is on the govt in GFE]
Officers could conduct a protective sweep when executing a search warrant. “In the case at hand, there was no testimony regarding bad faith on part of the officers who searched the residence where Appellant was hiding.” State v. Davis, 2018-Ohio-4368, … Continue reading
The state’s plain view argument wasn’t pressed in the trial court, so it can’t be a basis for appeal. Even on the merits, the state loses because the stop was invalid, and the detention unreasonable all before the alleged plain … Continue reading
N.D.Ohio: Parole officers’ clinical reports didn’t have any of the added color at the suppression hearing, so the court doesn’t credit their testimony
“Based upon the totality of the circumstances and the Court’s assessment of the credibility of the parole officers, the Court finds that the [parole authority] lacked reasonable suspicion to search Neff’s cell phone. The results of the search, therefore, must … Continue reading
CA10: You can’t tell the court it needs to apply the independent source case law a certain way and then complain on appeal that it did what you asked
This case started with hotel housekeeping coming in to clean a room and seeing obvious drug paraphernalia. The police were called, and they were shown. A search warrant was prepared showing probable cause to connect defendants to the room by … Continue reading
NV erroneously puts burden on def to show that a warrantless entry to a locked bedroom was unreasonable and not a private search
Police were called to a house and the owner wanted the police to enter and search a locked room occupied by another adult with permission from the owner to stay there. The officer declined because defendant had reasonable expectation of … Continue reading
VI: Officer’s use of “legal buzz words” with “rote and mechanical” testimony and then memory failures leads trial court to conclude he’s not credible
The officer’s use of “legal buzz words” with “rote and mechanical” testimony and then memory failures leads trial court to conclude he’s not credible. People v. Stevens, 2018 V.I. LEXIS 70 (Super. Ct. July 26, 2018):
The issue of inevitable discovery was treated as an aside by the government, although it bore the burden of proof on it. It seeks the use of hearsay on inevitable discovery that was hard to credit considering the posture of … Continue reading