- NC: Going to back door after no answer in a knock-and-talk violates Jardines
- OH2: Owner of real property has no power to consent to search of visitor’s or co-tenant’s property
- KY: A court order doesn’t need to be titled “search warrant” to be considered one.
- KY: State’s comment on refusal to consent to DUI test was prejudicial and error
- CA3: Doing drug deals from the car parked behind the house was nexus
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Arrest or entry on arrest
The state can’t use the right-result, wrong-theory rule when it doesn’t preserve the alternative argument to give the other party the opportunity to develop the record. State v. Hoskins, 2019 Ida. LEXIS 108 (June 13, 2019). The evidence available to … Continue reading
“Defendant may not retreat to the curtilage of his home to avoid arrest.” State v. Nolan, 2019 La. App. LEXIS 1085 (La. App. 3 Cir. June 12, 2019). The smell of marijuana was justification for search of defendant’s person. A … Continue reading
There was probable cause to arrest, and that also justified the extension of the stop. The actual arrest doesn’t have to happen during the extension. United States v. Phillips, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 89962 (D. Mont. April 12, 2019), adopted, … Continue reading
NY1: Protective arrest of juvenile for health and safety reasons just to get him to court violates 4A
The protective arrest of a juvenile under the Family Court Act violates the Fourth Amendment. This has been a longstanding practice, and no bad motives are attributed to anyone, but this practice can’t continue. Matter of Zavion O. (Donna O.), … Continue reading
IL: Kentucky officers investigated aggravated DUI with an accident on Ohio River bridge; remanded for findings of GFE
Defendant was involved in an accident on the Brookport Bridge between Illinois and Kentucky, and he was originally charged in Kentucky. On closer examination, the accident was determined to be in Illinois, so that case was dismissed, and it was … Continue reading
While tribes generally do not have criminal jurisdiction over non-Indians, tribal officers can stop people for apparent offenses on tribal lands. Defendant’s pretextual stop argument is rejected because there was an objective basis for it. United States v. Santistevan, 2019 … Continue reading
“We reject defendant’s contention that County Court erred in refusing to suppress statements that he made to the police during the execution of a search warrant at his residence and thereafter at the police station. Defendant contends that he was … Continue reading
CA10: QI properly granted in homeowner’s 4A claim against officer executing arrest warrant for another
The district court properly granted qualified immunity to a trailer resident’s Fourth Amendment claims against a deputy sheriff stemming from a search and seizure conducted while executing an arrest warrant for a guest staying in the trailer. The law was … Continue reading
The entry to defendant’s back porch was reasonable because he was there with an arrest warrant. On the back porch he saw some potential equipment for a meth lab. When the police applied for a search warrant, the product of … Continue reading
S.D.Cal.: Fire call about structure fire was erroneous, and further entry into backyard was unreasonable
The San Diego County Fire Department got a call about a structure fire. When they arrived, it turned out to be a small fire in a brush pile in defendant’s backyard that was virtually out. The exigency dissipated and it … Continue reading
A traffic stop based on a recalled warrant was still reasonable under the good faith exception of Evans and Herring. When she was arrested, her purse was subject to search incident: “Accordingly, because [her] purse was voluntarily brought outside the … Continue reading