- M.D.Fla.: Def had officer’s card and could have revoked consent to search cell phone by telephone call or letter
- W.D.Va.: Whistleblower CI has “strong[er] motive to supply accurate information.”
- MT: State’s acting on nonbinding immigration detainer is an arrest subject to 4A and state law
- EFF: EFF, ACLU & CDT Argue Five Months of Warrantless Covert 24/7 Video Surveillance Violates 4A
- Law.com: Understanding the Privacy Implications of Digital Technology
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Arrest or entry on arrest
Defendant rented a car in his name two weeks before the search. He had standing in the car when somebody borrowed it and was stopped. The court declines to find that the dog handler cued the dog. Audio of a … Continue reading
There was no probable cause to arrest defendant just because he was the one nearest to the drugs when the police came in. There was no consideration of his relationship to the premises in the face of the law of … Continue reading
Ignoring the fact that “the Fourth Amendment requires a judicial determination of probable cause as a prerequisite to extended restraint of liberty following arrest,” Gerstein v. Pugh, 420 U.S. 103, 114 (1975), and reasonable bail, we see this: Politico: DOJ … Continue reading
Eyewitness report and identification was probable cause for arrest, so summary judgment was proper for the officer. Tortora v. City of New York, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 8135 (2d Cir. Mar. 12, 2020).* The court credits the officers’ testimony that … Continue reading
OH3: Arrest of drug offender coming home outside his house led to officers hearing “scurrying about” inside, and that justified warrantless entry
One man under investigation for drug crimes was arrested outside a house when officers went there waiting for him to arrive. On the arrest, officers heard others inside “scurrying around” [how?]. This created exigency and justified a warrantless entry into … Continue reading
A passenger in a vehicle to be inventoried after a stop is entitled to notice to retrieve her personal belongings before it happens. Only this is consistent with the purpose of the inventory requirement. Other states are in accord, and … Continue reading
Officers attempted to stop defendant’s car but he drove to his driveway. There ultimately was a dog sniff of the car. The court finds that, by driving to his driveway with police behind him, his actions were consent for police … Continue reading
Conclusory objections to the R&R on this search issue are overruled. United States v. Wilson, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 36571 (E.D. Tex. Mar. 3, 2020). Feeling a firearm during a patdown is plain feel. United States v. White, 2020 U.S. … Continue reading
Chicago Sun-Times: ‘Secret hearings’ have allowed CPD to keep suspects in custody for more than 48-hour limit
Chicago Sun-Times: ‘Secret hearings’ have allowed CPD to keep suspects in custody for more than 48-hour limit by Andy Grimm and Tim Novak (“Todd S. Pugh, a veteran defense lawyer and member of the board of the National Association of … Continue reading
An arrest warrant for defendant permitted entry into a hotel room he rented under Payton. (Then he wins on insufficiency of evidence of constructive possession in the room.) State v. Jones, 2020 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 151 (Feb. 27, 2020). … Continue reading
N.D.Ind.: Omitting CI’s criminal history wasn’t a Franks violation where it was obvious he was involved in criminal activity
Omission of the CI’s prior convictions wasn’t material for Franks purposes. It was obvious he was helping himself out in making penal admissions, and his credibility was otherwise shown. The issuing magistrate would have still issued the warrant. United States … Continue reading