- E.D.Mich.: Listing inventory on police report and not inventory sheet not unreasonable
- VT: Roving CBP patrol stop one mile from Canadian border violated state const. even though probably not 4A
- IL: Mere visitor present at time of SW execution could not be searched without reason
- WaPo: When the FBI seizes your messages from Big Tech, you may not know it for years
- E.D.Ky.: Sex offense victim’s uncorroborated statements supported issuance of SW for defendant’s email account
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Probable cause
“Therefore, the officers’ decision to list the items recovered during the inventory search in the Incident Report and not on the Impound Report does not invalidate the inventory search.” United States v. Morris, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 182946 (E.D.Mich. Sept. … Continue reading
“Here, officers deployed a drug-detection dog during a traffic stop for failing to signal continuously for at least 100 feet before turning-without articulating any independent constitutional justification. Moreover, the state has not identified any theory or pointed us to any … Continue reading
Defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy to contest the search of his sister’s bedroom. United States v. Slater, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 180673 (E.D.Wis. Sept. 22, 2021). There was probable cause for search of defendant’s car, and the opportunity … Continue reading
NCIS obtained defendant’s passcode for his iPhone 6 by a Fourth Amendment violation by seeking to see him enter it when he was consciously trying to avoid them seeing it. Inevitable discovery also does not apply. United States v. Booker, … Continue reading
Collective knowledge is not required of all the officers involved in the case, just the one with knowledge telling the one making the stop. Here there was reasonable suspicion for the stop. United States v. Cruz-Rivera, 19-1465 & 19-1509 (1st … Continue reading
Some smell of marijuana in car with three people didn’t establish probable cause without the officer being able to say it came from defendant’s person. I.G. v. State, 21A-JV-479 (Ind. App. Sept. 10, 2021). Defendant ran from a fight in … Continue reading
Officer’s vague and untimely identification of the odor of marijuana was not probable cause in itself on the totality of these circumstances. Juliano v. State, 320, 2019 (Del. Sept. 10, 2021):
The distinctive smell of marijuana is enough for probable cause, and the officer’s training is enough to tell it. Bunnell v. State, 2021 Ind. LEXIS 545 (Sept. 2, 2021):
Defendant’s excessive nervousness, denial that some of the contents of the car were even his, and repeatedly talking on the phone with someone the officer suspected was coaching him what to do and say even after being repeatedly told to … Continue reading
The provider of the IP address could not tell police for certain that defendant had the particular IP address at the particular time sought, but they could opine it was highly likely. That’s certainly enough for probable cause. Defendant’s certified … Continue reading
IL: Def’s personal relationship to premises to be searched is relevant and has to be viewed in the context of the totality
Nexus for the premises was shown in the search warrant affidavit. Defendant’s personal relationship to the premises is relevant and has to be evaluated in context of the totality. On sufficiency of the evidence, however, defendant’s conviction is reversed for … Continue reading
“New York is no outlier on this issue. Indeed, as far as we can discern, every single court in the United States to ever consider this precise issue has come to the same conclusion as Darby and Sanchez: a trained … Continue reading
The officer had no suspicions of defendant before drawing his gun on him. The smell of marijuana on defendant’s person, but not his car, was not probable cause for a search of the car. The officer testified he was quite … Continue reading
E.D.N.Y.: Def already lawfully arrested suffered no separate 4A violation by being taken to ATF, too
Defendant already lawfully arrested wasn’t unreasonably seized by also taking him to ATF for further questioning. United States v. Rodriguez, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 158008 (E.D.N.Y. Aug. 20, 2021). The affidavit showed “ample probable cause” and the Franks challenge is … Continue reading
Defendant’s patdown as a passenger on smell of marijuana was reasonable during the stop, but a search of his person was not. There was no justification for a search of his person. State v. K.V. (In the Interest of K.V.), … Continue reading
A warrant wasn’t needed to seize a cell phone, but one was to search it, and they had one. Attacking the CI’s credibility fails as an issue, Franks or otherwise, because there is other probable cause for the warrant. United … Continue reading
Nexus and probable cause for a cell phone wiretap is the same standard as under the Fourth Amendment. “The CS performed three controlled buys by communicating with the cellphone number that was wiretapped. Further, the CS identified the number as … Continue reading
Defendant was driven to an ER after 2 am for having been shot. Out in the ER parking was the car with blood and guns in it. A state judge issued a search warrant for the car, and that resulted … Continue reading