- N.D.N.Y.: Mere disagreement with state court 4A determination still bars habeas review
- E.D.N.C.: Removing protective sweep from affidavit for SW still leaves PC
- TN: No right to reconsideration of denial of motion to suppress on transfer to a different trial judge after denial
- CA6: Officer executing a state arrest warrant doesn’t have to independently verify its validity
- CA6: Closely monitored controlled buy shows CI’s reliability
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Probable cause
A SnapChat video of defendant with a gun two days earlier was probable cause for a search warrant. Commonwealth v. Watkins, 2020 Mass. App. LEXIS 139 (Sept. 16, 2020). “Plaintiffs’ Amended Complaint asserts a Fourth Amendment claim for unreasonable search … Continue reading
Defendant didn’t adequately plead an ineffective assistance of counsel claim for defense counsel not arguing that defendant wasn’t given a copy of the search warrant at the time of the search so he could challenge the search. Smith v. State, … Continue reading
The government showed nexus between defendant’s Facebook account and the crime under investigation to justify the warrant, despite 19 paragraphs of boilerplate. United States v. Mize, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166759 (S.D. Ohio Sept. 11, 2020):
Gerstein applies to immigration arrests in this class action. Plaintiff was a U.S. citizen detained by ICE. Gonzalez v. U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 28827 (9th Cir. Sept. 11, 2020). There was probable cause for a … Continue reading
Defendant’s new crime during alleged illegal detention will not be suppressed. Here, he doesn’t even plead enough to get a hearing. People v. Chavez, 2020 Cal. App. LEXIS 858 (2d Dist. Sept. 10, 2020). There was a substantial basis for … Continue reading
“Mglej’s refusal to provide Deputy Gardner with his driver’s license or some other form of identification, then, as Deputy Gardner demanded, did not create probable cause to arrest Mglej under Utah Code § 76-8-301.5(1). Thus, sufficient to defeat summary judgment, … Continue reading
“A claim for false arrest or pretrial detention based on fabricated evidence sounds in the Fourth Amendment right to be free from seizure without probable cause.” Patrick v. City of Chicago, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 28380 (7th Cir. Sept. 8, … Continue reading
“Because the defendants had at least arguable probable cause to arrest Barnes for an open container violation, the search was also lawful. A search incident to arrest is lawful where the officer reasonably believed he had probable cause, regardless of … Continue reading
M.D.Pa.: Govt’s justification for protective sweep or exigency based entry were speculative so motion to suppress granted
The government contention a protective sweep or exigent circumstances justified the entry was speculative and lacked foundation. Motion to suppress granted. United States v. Lara-Mejia, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 156946 (M.D. Pa. Aug. 28, 2020). The automobile exception doesn’t apply … Continue reading
Defendant pled in his motion to suppress there was a knock-and-announce violation, and the government responded with affidavits that knocking would be unsafe. Unrebutted, that’s enough to deny a hearing. United States v. Moore, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 155454 (S.D. … Continue reading
Articulable suspicion not needed to run a license plate. United States v. Thompson, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 154156 (D. Mont. Aug. 24, 2020). Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not moving to suppress alleged overseizure of a doctor’s patient records where … Continue reading
The officers’ smell of raw marijuana at a house was probable cause. This is different than the case of burnt marijuana not justifying a search of the trunk of a car. In an IAC claim, defendant didn’t plead any evidence … Continue reading
CA8: While § 922(g)(3) requires an “unlawful user” of drugs in possession of firearms, the question is only PC for seizure; statute is not vague
The government doesn’t need proof beyond a reasonable doubt that defendant was an “unlawful user” of controlled substance to seize firearms around drugs with probable cause. And that doesn’t make the § 922(g)(3) vague. United States v. Figueroa-Serrano, 2020 U.S. … Continue reading
“Based on these facts, it was not unreasonable for law enforcement to believe there was probable cause that evidence of the scheme would be found at Traore’s residence nearly a year after the bank account was last accessed from his … Continue reading
Cal.3: In a recreational MJ state, more is required for a car search than just possession of some marijuana
Possession of a legal amount of recreational marijuana isn’t probable cause for search without more. “Therefore, pursuant to Lee, there must be additional evidence, beyond mere possession of a legal amount of marijuana, to support a reasonable belief the defendant … Continue reading
Defendant’s furtive activity before the stop observed on a parking lot and during the stop was reasonable suspicion. United States v. Pierre, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 147127 (W.D. La. July 17, 2020).* Defendant admitted to there being drugs in the … Continue reading