- CADC: AE applied to boxes police reasonably believed contained evidence that was being removed from the premises
- Courthouse News: San Francisco OKs $369,000 Settlement for Journalist Targeted by Police
- CA4: Ptf’s 4A claim cell site simulator used on him remanded to District Court for more factfinding
- CA8 dissent from rehearing en banc: Panel misapplied qualified immunity on use of Taser
- Quarantines and the Fourth Amendment
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Inevitable discovery
D.N.M.: Search of camper being lived in parked on the street in violation of ordinance was inevitable
The question of standing and alleged illegal search of defendant’s camper were moot. The camper was parked on an Albuquerque city street where it’s illegal to live in a camper. Given those facts, the camper would have otherwise been inventoried, … Continue reading
Defendant consented to a search of his car and his hotel room, but not to a search of his guitar case in the room. Thinking there might be drugs there, the officer seized the guitar case to preserve the potential … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: Getting def to unlock his phone wasn’t unreasonable because the SIM card would have been forensically searched later anyway
It was reasonable for POs to search defendant’s unapproved cell phone without a search warrant as a probation search. Making him use his face or get the password to unlock the phone was not unreasonable because the contents of the … Continue reading
CA2: SI of backpack for a subway fare violation was unreasonable, but a search was inevitable as inventory
Defendant was arrested by NYPD for using a student fare MetroCard, and a computer search showed he was a transit recidivist. His backpack was searched. While it was an invalid search incident, he was taken to the precinct house and … Continue reading
CA11: Border search of disabled vessel towed to port obviated need to decide warrantless planting of GPS on it
Defendant’s vessel broke down off West Palm Beach, and CBP boarded it when it was towed in for a border search. Nothing was found, but various things about the boat, like it’s prior owner was a drug trafficker and defendant’s … Continue reading
ID: Unlawful warrantless search isn’t salvageable by inevitable discovery by later learning of probation search waiver
A unreasonable warrantless search is not cured by inevitable discovery because the officers later find out defendant was on probation and had a search waiver on file. State v. Maxim, 2019 Ida. LEXIS 216 (Dec. 4, 2019):
Inevitable discovery applies: “The District Court based its decision to admit evidence from Restitullo’s apartment on three factors. First, police drafted the warrant application before Restitullo’s interrogation began. Second, ‘overwhelming’ probable cause existed to search Restitullo’s bedroom based on the … Continue reading
“Because no Miranda violation occurred, the police permissibly relied on Terui’s incriminating statements in obtaining the search warrant for his home. Even if a Miranda violation had occurred, however, suppression of the evidence found pursuant to the warrant would not … Continue reading
The government proved inevitable discovery. “The record makes clear that before Alston made any involuntary admissions, Captain Aleem believed that Alston possessed a gun, had the probable cause necessary to search the car, and intended to find the gun. The … Continue reading
The DEA set up a pole camera across the street from defendant’s house to watch the comings and goings expecting a car to go to New Mexico with drugs. There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in what the camera … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: Court doesn’t believe officer on inventory as a justification, but impoundment of the vehicle would have happened anyway
“Defendant David Arnold was arrested for and charged with possession of a firearm by a felon after the Detroit police found a stolen handgun in the glovebox of the car he was driving. The police stopped the car because the … Continue reading