- AL: Manipulating object in pocket of person leaving a drug house exceeded Terry
- CA9: Using ruse to get def home to search his car under a SW was unreasonable
- CA9: Prison visitor should be allowed to avoid a strip search based on RS by being permitted to leave
- PA addresses smell of MJ in a new MMJ state: it’s a factor in RS, and not determinative of RS or PC
- N.D.Ind.: Defense counsel not ineffective for challenging state search under state constitution and not 4A too
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Waiver
The affidavit for the search warrant here didn’t state the second CI was reliable, but reliability was shown by closely monitoring the controlled buy, and that showed probable cause. United States v. Jones, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 29878 (6th Cir. … Continue reading
CA9: There is no exhaustion requirement for other investigative techniques for a tracking warrant, but failure to adequately brief it is waiver anyway
The affidavit for this GPS tracking warrant said that other investigative techniques had been exhausted, and defendant claims it was false. “Colldock also contests the affidavit’s statement that law enforcement had, before seeking a GPS tracking warrant, ‘exhausted its investigative … Continue reading
Defendant’s illegal stop claim for having an open container in San Antonio wasn’t presented in the trial court so it’s waived. Sowers v. State, 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 7473 (Tex. App. – San Antonio Sept. 16, 2020).* “This Fourth Amendment … Continue reading
“In light of the above, the Court agrees with Defendants that post-indictment, heath care administrative subpoenas that seek information that may be relevant to pending charges may not be directed towards a criminal defendant. As discussed above, Phibbs does not … Continue reading
CA5: § 1983 4A claim that evidence was inadmissible at trial was Heck barred, and then waived on appeal
Plaintiff’s § 1983 Fourth Amendment claim was framed as a claim the evidence was inadmissible at trial. Thus it was barred. His appeal was over denial of IFP status, which was also denied, and he waived the Fourth Amendment claim … Continue reading
“Because the defendants had at least arguable probable cause to arrest Barnes for an open container violation, the search was also lawful. A search incident to arrest is lawful where the officer reasonably believed he had probable cause, regardless of … Continue reading
Failure to get a ruling on a search claim in the trial court is waiver of the issue for appeal. People v. Collins, 2020 NY Slip Op 04517, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 4610 (1st Dept. Aug. 13, 2020). Drug … Continue reading
FL3: Some discretion in the seizing officers as to what should be seized was not unreasonable or a lack of particularity
Some discretion in the seizing officers as to what should be seized was not unreasonable or a lack of particularity. An unfilled-in blank on the warrant didn’t make it vague, either. Also, defendant waived his probable cause argument on appeal … Continue reading
The dashcam video does not undermine the crediblity of the officer on the basis for the stop because the dashcam’s perspective may be different than the officer’s. United States v. Cart, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 130796 (M.D. Tenn. July 24, … Continue reading
Defendant waived his Fourth Amendment claim by not getting a ruling on the issue in the trial court. Spencer v. Commonwealth, 2020 Va. App. LEXIS 206 (July 21, 2020). Defendant lost his search claim in the district court and on … Continue reading
The state waived its challenge to the defendant’s reliance on the state constitution by failure to litigate it below. Waiver claims have to be applied evenhandedly between the state and defendants. Commonwealth v. Wolfel, 2020 Pa. LEXIS 3797 (July 21, … Continue reading
Police approach to defendant’s house at 3:30 am was reasonable because it was based on a domestic violence report to check on his wife. “Finally, Jardines, King, and Manzanares do not apply here. The Officers did not search Mr. Martinez’s … Continue reading
A jurisdictional claim to issue the warrant was waived below well before the guilty plea. People v. Mitchell, 2020 NY Slip Op 04029, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 4188 (4th Dept. July 17, 2020). It’s settled that the exclusionary rule … Continue reading
A Bivens remedy should not exist for actions against prisons for seizure of an inmate’s artwork that allegedly violated prison regulations. Courts don’t want to get into monitoring prisons. Callahan v. Fed. Bureau of Prisons, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 22115 … Continue reading