- N.D.Ga.: The SW doesn’t have to be in hand at the place of search as long as it is complied with
- S.D.Fla.: A car broken down on the highway was still “readly mobile” enough for the automobile exception to apply
- NC: Seizure of shotgun during protective sweep for misdemeanor probation arrest was unreasonable
- D.Nev.: Inventory invalid for not sufficiently complying with policy; bodycam video relied upon
- D.Minn.: PC for SW doesn’t even need to be decided if the GFE would apply
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 20k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts, other
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Category Archives: Roadblocks
Driver’s license checkpoints don’t require written rules. United States v. Moore, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 116012 (E.D. N.C. May 18, 2017), adopted, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 115453 (E.D. N.C. July 25, 2017):
Defendant was stopped at a driver’s license checkpoint where all cars were stopped. The court finds the checkpoint constitutional. Defendant then consented to the search of his car. United States v. Moore, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 116012 (E.D. N.C. May … Continue reading
Defendant was stopped at a game checkpoint and admitted to placing his daughter’s tag on a deer he shot. He was not “in custody” when he confessed. State v. Maile, 2017 MT 154, 2017 Mont. LEXIS 350 (June 23, 2017). … Continue reading
The minor deviations from the plan for the DUI roadblock here don’t require suppression. Commonwealth v. Baker, 2017 Mass. App. LEXIS 53 (May 4, 2017). A citizen informant’s call that defendant had a knife in his back pocket justified a … Continue reading
S.D.Ga.: A general motion to suppress a DUI roadblock is denied; that “Something must be wrong here” doesn’t cut it
A general motion to suppress a DUI roadblock on a military base is denied for lack of content of fact or law. United States v. Jefferson, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 37096 (S.D. Ga. March 15, 2017):
D.Ore.: Def stopped at roadblock from Malheur National Wildlife Refuge could be searched again after he went back to talk others into leaving
Defendant arrived at the Malheur National Wildlife Refuge in January 2016. After arrests and the killing of one, he decided to leave and encountered a roadblock where he was briefly searched. Officers asked if he would go back to the … Continue reading
A roadblock on the path of escape from an armed robbery was a reasonable stop. United States v. Philpot, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 183882 (N.D.Ga. June 3, 2016), adopted, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 177557 (N.D. Ga. Nov. 16, 2016):
A probation officer’s home visit is not a search. Levitt v. State, 2016 VT 60, ¶ 32. State v. Albarelli, 2016 VT 119, 2016 Vt. LEXIS 121 (Nov. 18, 2016). The DUI roadblock in this case was established in accord … Continue reading
AR: DUI roadblock set up purely in the discretion of the officer on an interstate highway off-ramp was unreasonable
A DUI roadblock set up purely in the discretion of the officer on an interstate highway off-ramp was unreasonable. Whelan v. State, 2016 Ark. 343 (Oct. 20, 2016):
Five officers boarded a Greyhound bus in Conroe, Texas just to search it and confront passengers. Defendant’s consent to search belongings suppressed. This was a forced interaction by detaining the bus. United States v. Wise, 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 130681 … Continue reading