- N.D.W.Va.: Officers arrived at an injured person call, and the assailant wasn’t around; protective sweep permissible
- TN: Blood draw without consent was valid at the time it happened; therefore valid
- W.D.Va.: Misstatement of crack v. powder cocaine wasn’t Franks violation
- S.D.Tex.: Immigration stop was extended with RS
- D.P.R.: Parents lacked apparent authority to consent to adult child’s room
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I still learn something new every day.”
—Pete Townshend, The Who 50th Anniversary Tour, "The Who Live at Hyde Park" (Showtime 2015)
"I can't talk about my singing. I'm inside it. How can you describe something you're inside of?"
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Category Archives: Inventory
Police had the discretion under the inventory policy to conduct the inventory and then allow the car to go back to Enterprise car rental rather than the police impound lot. Also, a disturbed panel in the car permitted the inventory … Continue reading
The discovery of the contraband was by inevitable discovery because an inventory was going to occur in any event. The fact the policy wasn’t written isn’t determinative as long as it is reasonable. United States v. Bullette, 2017 U.S. App. … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: If an inventory is otherwise valid, it doesn’t matter that it also had an investigative purpose
Defendant’s cell phone was seized from his car after a stop. If an inventory is otherwise valid, it doesn’t matter that it also had an investigative purpose. A search warrant was sought for the cell phone. The affidavit for the … Continue reading
Defendant’s stop was based on the Wyoming LPN coming back as expired, but it turned out that Wyoming has a different database for trucks, even pickup trucks. Shortly thereafter, the LPN was found in a different search by dispatch. The … Continue reading
The lack of an inventory sheet fatal to the state’s claim the search was valid as an inventory. Keith v. State, 2017 Ala. Crim. App. LEXIS 14 (March 17, 2017):
MA: Impoundment unreasonable in purported “high crime” area that was partly residential with other cars already there; Swiss Army knife not an indicator other weapons in car
Defendant was stopped and arrested in a “high crime” area [which apparently didn’t include stripping cars]. The area was partly residential and other cars were parked on the street, too. That alone didn’t make it reasonable to have to impound … Continue reading
IN: Inventory not sufficiently regulated to be valid; also, officer’s deviation from inventory showed pretext
The search of defendant’s truck was not sufficiently regulated by standardized police procedures and therefore was pretextual, as the vague, conflicting inventory regime of the police department was not capable of sufficiently regulating the search. Even if it was, the … Continue reading
Defendants were arrested for robbery, and they objected to the R&R as failing to consider that the inventory of the vehicle was a pretext for an investigative search. The court finds that the policy on inventory was followed and that … Continue reading
WA: While impoundment was permissible, state law required reasonable alternatives be considered first
While impoundment was statutorily permitted, state law requires alternatives be explored before impoundment. Here it wasn’t, so the impoundment is suppressed. State v. Froehlich, 2017 Wash. App. LEXIS 366 (Feb. 14, 2017):