- E.D.Mo.: Def consented to four undercover officers who first met him at post office to search house for a wanted man
- N.D.Ala.: No exigency for entry into home to seize gun for alleged safety of children
- Cal.4: Warrantless seizure of def’s dashcam was reasonable on exigent circumstances; three days to get a SW wasn’t unreasonable
- FL2: Anonymous calls about a pick-up truck driving slowly around the block in the middle of the night in a residential low crime area wasn’t RS
- D.D.C.: Collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require that the officers actually share the information
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Automobile exception
Officers exceeded the scope of defendant’s consent, but, by the time they did, they had probable cause under the automobile exception to search further. People v. Davis, 2019 IL App (1st) 160408, 2019 Ill. App. LEXIS 875 (Sept. 23, 2019),* … Continue reading
N.D.Iowa: There was no RS as to def who was talking with another for whom there was; def should have been allowed to leave
When one defendant wanted to leave the encounter with the police, there was no reasonable suspicion for his patdown and he should have been allowed to leave without the patdown. United States v. Steffens, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 190597 (N.D. … Continue reading
The apparently unconstitutional searches of defendant’s cell phones were harmless beyond a reasonable doubt when nothing was used from them. Ward v. Commonwealth, 2019 Ky. LEXIS 433 (Oct. 31, 2019).* In defendant’s traffic stop for not stopping at the stop … Continue reading
The reasonable expectation of privacy in a hotel room expires with the checkout time. Lindsey v. State, 2019 Ga. App. LEXIS 623 (Oct. 29, 2019). The defendant officers were properly entitled to summary judgment on plaintiff’s excessive force claim. Also, … Continue reading
The search warrant referred to the premises to be searched as “5243/45 Broadway.” It was one continuous apartment downstairs with one address, and the other upstairs was still being built and was occupied. 5243 was used on the search warrant … Continue reading
Driving on a suspended license is an offense for which (1) search incident is valid, and (2) the driver can’t continue and the vehicle would be impounded and subject to a proper inventory. In this case, the inventory was not … Continue reading
KY: Def’s car search lacked PC; not def’s burden to show state lacked exigency, it’s the state’s burden to show it
The search of defendant’s car was completely unjustified. The car was parked and he was sitting in it. The officer was curious and approached to talk to him. Nothing was seen suggesting crime was “a foot.” The state’s argument that … Continue reading
D.Minn.: Car being stuck in snow and key fob not there doesn’t nullify application of the automobile exception
A car stuck in the snow at the end of the alley and defendant without the key fob is still mobile for the automobile exception. “Any temporary loss of mobility is insufficient to take Williams’s case outside the automobile exception.” … Continue reading
Defendant concedes officers had probable cause. Just because they had advance notice defendant was coming because of the breadth of their investigation, the automobile exception allowed a vehicle search because of the mobility of the car. Advance notice still doesn’t … Continue reading
Defendant’s traffic stop was justified for stopping in the crosswalk before turning on red. The search of the car was found by the trial court with probable cause and justified by the search incident doctrine and the automobile exception. Defendant … Continue reading
There was reason for defendant’s stop and reasonable suspicion developed from excessive nervousness and a masking agent, but there was no probable cause and exigency for a search of defendant’s car. State v. Terry, 2019 Del. Super. LEXIS 431 (Sept. … Continue reading
W.D.Tenn.: Driving one’s car to ER and going in isn’t abandonment; dead battery doesn’t remove exigency for automobile exception
Having been shot, defendant did not abandon his car when he drove to the ER and went in, leaving his keys in the car at the entrance. The fact the battery was dead in the car didn’t remove the exigency. … Continue reading