- CADC: AE applied to boxes police reasonably believed contained evidence that was being removed from the premises
- Courthouse News: San Francisco OKs $369,000 Settlement for Journalist Targeted by Police
- CA4: Ptf’s 4A claim cell site simulator used on him remanded to District Court for more factfinding
- CA8 dissent from rehearing en banc: Panel misapplied qualified immunity on use of Taser
- Quarantines and the Fourth Amendment
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Automobile exception
CADC: AE applied to boxes police reasonably believed contained evidence that was being removed from the premises
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not moving to suppress the seizure of boxes of evidence from defendant’s car. It was reasonable for the officers to believe defendant was loading the car to move evidence to hide it when the police … Continue reading
The vehicle search was valid as an inventory. When a weapon was found in the console, it was valid under the automobile exception. State v. Fawcett, 2020-Ohio-1004, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 925 (5th Dist. Mar. 12, 2020). The county’s insurance … Continue reading
Officer’s seeing syringes on the floor of defendant’s car just by looking was plain view and probable cause for search. Commonwealth v. Bumbarger, 2020 Pa. Super. LEXIS 206 (Mar. 16, 2020).* “Mr. Sealey’s motion to suppress, the court did not … Continue reading
Defendant was arrested on suspicion of murder, and he had a cell phone in his pocket that he was using, his younger brother’s. The seizure of the phone was proper, but the purported inventory of the phone was not because … Continue reading
OR: Def’s driving to a controlled buy was PC for automobile exception; not a “police-created exigency”
Police had probable cause to stop defendant on his way to a controlled buy. This did not qualify as a “police-created exigency.” State v. Colman-Pinning, 302 Ore. App. 383 (Feb. 26, 2020). Appellant “seeks appellate relief based on a single … Continue reading
N.D.Ohio: An open container in a car is probable cause under the automobile exception to search for other open containers
An open container in a car is probable cause under the automobile exception to search for other open containers. In addition: “Here, Patrolmen Link and McClamroch had received information that a retaliatory shooting could occur near the location they stopped … Continue reading
TX11: Automobile exception doesn’t permit a vehicle search after the object of the search has been recovered
The automobile exception did not apply where defendant was stopped for an alleged theft and the property was recovered before the search occurred, thereby obviating it. State v. Whitman, 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 1481 (Tex. App. – Eastland Feb. 21, … Continue reading
Defendant was being watched by police, and he was being followed and ran a stop sign. In the stop, the officer told defendant to roll down his window and turn off the car. He rolled the window part way down … Continue reading
Oregon passes on an invitation to impose a warrant requirement on all vehicle searches just because telephonic warrants should make them required in every case. The automobile exception applies, and the state did not have to show the realistic probability … Continue reading
When defendant was stopped, he was seen rolling a joint. Despite the medical marijuana law, the officer could search the car for more because it was still a violation of federal law. United States v. Hinds, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
FL5: Appellate counsel in direct appeal was ineffective for not arguing automobile exception wasn’t applicable; if it had been argued, court would have reversed
In defendant’s original appeal, appellate counsel argued only that the search incident doctrine applied and he failed on that issue. On post-conviction, however, new counsel argued that the automobile exception should have been argued and that it did not apply … Continue reading
W.D.Ky.: An open container doesn’t permit a search of an entire car under automobile exception or search incident
An open container in a car doesn’t grant the police the authority to search the entire vehicle for another open container. It is implausible to believe that another would be found outside of the passenger compartment. United States v. Thomas, … Continue reading