- Reason: City Orders Businesses to Join Its Police Surveillance System
- Gizmodo: Man Sues Feds After Finding Spy Camera on His Property and Refusing to Give It Back
- MA: Officer could follow def into open garage during active drug trafficking investigation
- PA: Powering on a cell phone was the first of three warrantless searches in violation of Riley
- NPR: ACLU Sues Milwaukee Over Alleged Racial Profiling
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Consent
The officer’s subjective belief in implied consent was unreasonable. There was no implied consent, and the motion to suppress is granted, despite the R&R. “Here, it is undisputed that neither Officer Tackett nor Officer Stevens asked for permission to enter … Continue reading →
MA: Consent to search for firearms and drugs “in the vehicle” wasn’t notice that the officer would search under the hood; no consent for that search
The trial court properly granted defendant’s motion to suppress because his consent to a search for drugs or firearms “in the vehicle” did not authorize an officer to search under the vehicle’s hood and to remove the air filter, since … Continue reading →
After a search warrant was executed with a flash bang device, a St. Louis building inspector came and got consent from the occupant to conduct a search. The building inspector was entitled to qualified immunity because they can’t show their … Continue reading →
“Importantly, the warrant itself refers only to ‘[t]he premises located at: 1701 Bainbridge Avenue, Pensacola, Florida 32507.’ Although Attachment A incorrectly attributes that address to the trailer, the photo and description support the conclusion that the trailer and building are … Continue reading →
Defendant’s longtime girlfriend looked in his briefcase for information about a prior housekeeper, and she looked at a flash drive and scrolled through folders. She stumbled upon a photograph of her daughter sleeping shirtless. She turned the drive over to … Continue reading →
The landlord obtained legal process to evict the tenants in an apartment, and the City Marshal changed the locks. When the tenants reentered, they were trespassers and had no legal standing or reasonable expectation of privacy. People v. McCullum, 2018 … Continue reading →
Defendant’s appellate argument changed from whether there was reasonable suspicion for a patdown to conceding the patdown was legal but the plain feel of a hard object found in her vagina was not. That’s waiver of the argument. State v. … Continue reading →
Defendant consented to the blood test. “At the suppression hearing the district court heard testimony from both Sergeant Stoltz and Montgomery as well as listened to the audio recording of the arrest. The district court noted an extended dialogue between … Continue reading →
Defendant was on federal supervised release, and the reasonable suspicion of Knights applies, and the officers had it here because defendant admitted a violation of his internet usage agreement with the PO. United States v. Kuhnel, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading →
The court declines to adopt the R&R that defendant abandoned or had no reasonable expectation of privacy in a shopping bag by defendant setting it down on gym bleachers while he was in the gym playing basketball. United States v. … Continue reading →
The record supports that defendant consented to his probation search. Giving the alarm code helps show consent. There was no objection to the probation search at any time. United States v. Wilson, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 8815 (D. Neb. Jan. … Continue reading →
Defendant was a passenger in his own car, and it was stopped by the police. The driver gave consent, and it was binding on the owner passenger. State v. Hill, 298 Neb. 675, 2018 Neb. LEXIS (Jan. 19, 2018). When … Continue reading →