- E.D.Pa.: Use of flashlight on backseat of car at night not a search
- OH5: Dog was called two minutes into stop of RV and it didn’t prolong the stop
- M.D.Fla.: No 4A protection for non-citizen stopped by CG at sea
- E.D.N.C.: When there is RS, officers do not need to rule out innocent explanations
- WV: Emergency order of protection was not functional equivalent of SW for entry into home
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Consent
Posts to a “secret” Facebook group weren’t protected by any reasonable privacy interest in civil litigation. Social media isn’t protected by any privacy interest. “Defendant does not cite, and the Court could not find, any case that extends the Fourth … Continue reading →
The protective sweep of defendant’s motel room was reasonable, and it was also justified by a search waiver. There was a woman in the room who was not the defendant they were looking for. United States v. Banegas, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading →
D.C.: Body cam didn’t support trial court finding of consent to feel a bag; it essentially happened as one move as officer asked for consent
The record doesn’t support the trial court’s finding of consent to a squeeze of a bag that revealed a gun. The officer was reaching for the bag asking for consent. “The government played footage from Denton’s body worn camera (‘BWC’), … Continue reading →
S.D.N.Y.: Defense counsel giving passcode to def’s cell phone at AUSA’s request wasn’t consent; merely avoiding delay of decryption
An AUSA’s request of defense counsel for defendant’s cell phone’s passcode was not a request for consent. It was merely to avoid the delay of decryption. United States v. Mangini, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 66764 (S.D. N.Y. Apr. 6, 2021):
WI: Consent to search a computer was limited to def’s son’s user files; forensically searching recycle bin exceeded the scope of consent
Defendant granted consent to search only his son’s files on his computer. The forensic analyst searched the recycle bin, too, and that exceeded the scope of consent. Shared files were not within the scope of consent. State v. Jereczek, 2021 … Continue reading →
Defendant repeatedly asked for a search warrant when the officers sought consent, so there was no consent. He was present and objecting, and they couldn’t look to another to provide consent. “Considering the agents’ repeated representations, the Court cannot expect … Continue reading →
While a shrug isn’t consent, mumbling, nodding, and lifting one’s hands can be consent on the totality. The consent was a permissible extension of the encounter. State v. Stands, 2021 ND 46, 2021 N.D. LEXIS 43 (Mar. 24, 2021):
ID: Police knowledge def was attempting to destroy evidence of a murder including burning the body and other evidence was exigency for entry
Police knowledge defendant was destroying evidence of a violent crime on his premises was exigency for a warrantless entry. “Lopez reported to the police that he had seen Davis’s body.” Police knew: “Smith was actively attempting to destroy evidence by … Continue reading →
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in inmate non-legal jail email. Robinson v. Pennsylvania Dep’t of Corr., 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 7900 (3d Cir. Mar. 18, 2021). Defendant consented to come in to talk about the investigation and to … Continue reading →
When asked for consent, defendant didn’t answer. The officer’s testimony that “he not tell me no” was not consent, which had to proved by the state. People v. Banta, 2021 IL App (4th) 180761, 2021 Ill. App. LEXIS 112 (Mar. … Continue reading →
“Bruno changed his argument on appeal. In the district court, he disputed the government’s factual representations supporting the search of his apartment. On appeal, he no longer argues that the search warrant application contained factual inaccuracies or material omissions. Rather, … Continue reading →
OR: Entry onto curtilage to closely examine car for evidence of hit-and-run exceed implied consent of entry
After a hit-and-run accident, police took a bumper part left at the scene. They ultimately located the probable car at defendant’s house. The police, as any other visitor, had implied authority to enter the curtilage but not to look at … Continue reading →
The court finds that the police-citizen encounter here was consensual, so the question of reasonable suspicion doesn’t have to be decided. The race of the occupants is never a concern in consent. United States v. Knights, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading →
Defendant’s wife called the police as a domestic violence victim, and she was found to have consented to a search of their garage and gun safe. She was emotional, considering what she’d been through, but consent wasn’t involuntary. She was … Continue reading →
CO: POs reasonably believed def parolee consented to broad search of apt, including boyfriend’s stuff
Defendant’s girlfriend was on parole, and the parole officers came to the house for a search. The parole officers reasonably believed that she had apparent authority to consent to a search of the premises. She believed she was moving there, … Continue reading →
MO: DNA could be taken from def’s genitalia without a warrant on arrest shortly after alleged crime because of exigency
Exigent circumstances permitted the police to take DNA samples from defendant’s genitalia within minutes of an alleged rape. Time was of the essence because the DNA could be lost if defendant were left to his own devices or even possibly … Continue reading →
The record doesn’t support defendant’s claim that he was removed to avoid his ability to object to consent under Randolph. In addition, his detention was otherwise objectively reasonable. United States v. Shaw, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 35405 (E.D. Tenn. Feb. … Continue reading →
The government’s ruse that defendant’s name was being used to fraudulently get prescriptions to gain entry into his house made his consent involuntary. United States v. Burch, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 35265 (E.D. N.C. Feb. 25, 2021):
“The trial court erred as a matter of law in ruling that Mr. Ford’s actions did not revoke consent. An objectively reasonable officer would have understood Mr. Ford’s act of placing his hand on the outside of his pocket exactly … Continue reading →
AR: Officer letting himself in because it was raining after homeowner answered knock on door was not implied consent
The officer here came to the door and knocked. When the occupant opened the door, the officer entered because it was raining. The trial court found implied consent. The court of appeals disagrees. It was acquiescence. Abernathy v. State, 2021 … Continue reading →