- MA: When seizing digital devices under SW, looking at camera pictures didn’t require exclusion where not mentioned in SW for camera
- CA8: Officer approached who he thought was a crime victim and answers to questions gave RS he was the culprit
- NE: SW’s cut and paste error on what to be searched could be overlooked here
- NPR: Police Body Cam Footage Is Being Used For Surveillance, Activists Say
- WI: Officer can ask about weapons and for consent in any traffic stop without extending it
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Consent
A juvenile accused of a sex offense also has to consent with his parents to taking a DNA swab. The parent’s consent alone is not enough. In re H. K. D. S., 305 Ore. App. 86, 2020 Ore. App. LEXIS … Continue reading →
“We conclude that the incapacitated driver provision is unconstitutional because the implied consent that incapacitated drivers are deemed to have given and presumed not to have withdrawn does not satisfy any exception to the Fourth Amendment’s warrant requirement. However, we … Continue reading →
Defendant consented to a search of his car early on into the traffic stop. After the purpose of the stop was completed, a second search of the car wasn’t covered by the initial consent. State v. Drake, 2020 Ga. App. … Continue reading →
Defendant’s questions about his arrest and the officer’s request for consent did not require a Miranda warning. State v. Pauldo, 2020 Ga. LEXIS 447 (June 16, 2020). N.9:
A private airplane’s “quick-turn flights, although not necessarily illegal, may contribute to reasonable suspicion of criminal conduct.” (California to Pennsylvania and waiting only a few hours; here stopped in Illinois) That, coupled with other information the officers had was reasonable … Continue reading →
The impoundment of defendant’s car on the property of another was reasonable. Officers were not required to wait for defendant to locate somebody to retrieve the car, and they didn’t have to leave it to inconvenience the property owner. United … Continue reading →
Officers thought defendant was on probation and searched him, but he wasn’t at the time. The state put on no evidence of good faith, so the search fails for lack of a factual or legal basis for the search. People … Continue reading →
Defendant’s maybe nodding her head yes was contrary to her words on the dashcam video. There was no unequivocal voluntary consent. State v. Casi, 2020-Ohio-3063, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 2010 (6th Dist. May 22, 2020). “Although the video of Vaclavik’s … Continue reading →
Defendant was driving on a suspended license, and it was inevitable that his car would be towed and inventoried. The search was thus not suppressed. United States v. Bradley, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 15593 (3d Cir. May 15, 2020). The … Continue reading →
“It is common authority, not legal ownership, that confers actual authority to consent to a search. … In this case, the evidence was sufficient for the court to find that A shared common authority with defendant over the bedroom and … Continue reading →
A hotel customer has a reasonable expectation of privacy in the hotel’s registry information about the customer from government intrusion, at least with reasonable suspicion under the state constitution. The statute permitting inspection is constitutional with this limitation. The officer’s … Continue reading →
IL: Bailee of vehicle has no authority to open or permit search of sealed packages or containers inside
A bailment of a vehicle doesn’t give the bailee the authority to consent or open sealed packages or containers inside. People v. Ortega, 2020 IL App (1st) 162516, 2020 Ill. App. LEXIS 236 (Apr. 10, 2020):
The officer did not have to specify in the affidavit for search warrant that he had specialized training in detecting the smell of marijuana for there to be probable cause. The government showed by a preponderance of the evidence the … Continue reading →
Consent was not voluntary where the officer told defendant that DCYF might take her kids. Had police sought a search warrant, there was no nexus. “The Court finds that law enforcement could not have shown a sufficient nexus between Almonte’s … Continue reading →
Defendant was a lieutenant in the fire department, and his father was the chief. He was using a city owned laptop. After he was arrested for exposing himself in a Walmart bathroom, dad had the apparent and actual authority to … Continue reading →
CA8: District court’s findings of voluntary consent supported by record despite language barrier and defense language expert
Despite a language barrier and a Spanish-language expert saying the officer’s request was ambiguous, the district court found that defendant consented to a search of his luggage. That finding is not clearly erroneous, even considering all the record. The officer … Continue reading →