- M.D.Fla.: Def had officer’s card and could have revoked consent to search cell phone by telephone call or letter
- W.D.Va.: Whistleblower CI has “strong[er] motive to supply accurate information.”
- MT: State’s acting on nonbinding immigration detainer is an arrest subject to 4A and state law
- EFF: EFF, ACLU & CDT Argue Five Months of Warrantless Covert 24/7 Video Surveillance Violates 4A
- Law.com: Understanding the Privacy Implications of Digital Technology
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Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: § 1983 / Bivens
The vehicle search was valid as an inventory. When a weapon was found in the console, it was valid under the automobile exception. State v. Fawcett, 2020-Ohio-1004, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 925 (5th Dist. Mar. 12, 2020). The county’s insurance … Continue reading
There was reasonable suspicion for a school search because the school authorities had information from a known source that provided it. In re J.A.M., 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 2077 (Tex. App. – San Antonio Mar. 11, 2020). Defendant’s chokehold on … Continue reading
OH10: Lack of findings of fact and conclusions of law on grant of suppression motion requires remand to make them
The trial court’s grant of suppression is reversed and remanded because of its inadequate findings of fact and conclusions of law for appellate review. State v. Peeks, 2020-Ohio-889, 2020 Ohio App. LEXIS 812 (10th Dist. Mar. 10, 2020). Defendant officers … Continue reading
Two hours of CSLI in 2012 to connect defendant to a capital murder was not subject to the exclusionary rule. Carpenter n.3 in 2018 left open this situation. Fuston v. State, 2020 OK CR 4, 2020 Okla. Crim. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
An officer responding to a house where an assault was just reported to have occurred could stop a car backing out of the driveway because the occupant might have been involved in it. People v. Jiron, 2020 COA 36, 2020 … Continue reading
Malicious prosecution claims are to be brought under the Fourth Amendment and not substantive due process. Davis v. Gallagher, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 6180 (6th Cir. Feb. 28, 2020). Driving with hands at the 10 and 2 position was suspect … Continue reading
The trial court’s failure to address the good faith exception as an alternative to alleged lack of probable cause precludes the state from relying on it. Remanded to make a record. Hicks v. State, 2020 Fla. App. LEXIS 2465 (Fla. … Continue reading
N.D.Ind.: Omitting CI’s criminal history wasn’t a Franks violation where it was obvious he was involved in criminal activity
Omission of the CI’s prior convictions wasn’t material for Franks purposes. It was obvious he was helping himself out in making penal admissions, and his credibility was otherwise shown. The issuing magistrate would have still issued the warrant. United States … Continue reading
CA10: Shooting a person fleeing a shooting scene without determining he was the shooter might have been unreasonable, but right not to be shot in this situation not clearly established (Really)
In a § 1983 Fourth Amendment excessive force suit, officers heard a gun shot and saw people running as a crowd left a concert. They shot and killed the decedent, and a jury could conclude that the officers unreasonably determined … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s civil claim against Social Security Administration’s CID and local investigators stated a claim for unlawful entry into her home in a criminal investigation. Anh Tuyet Thai v. Saul, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 5425 (9th Cir. Feb. 19, 2020).* Plaintiff … Continue reading
TX9: Witness and ADAs allegedly providing false information for SWs are absolutely immune from civil cases
Witnesses who had provided affidavits in the underlying criminal case were entitled to absolute witness immunity, regardless of whether they gave false testimony. Prosecutors in that case who allegedly participated in falsifying evidence and writing a perjured search warrant were … Continue reading
SCOTUS: The estate of a young man shot and killed across the U.S.-Mexico border by a U.S. Border Patrol agent has no 4A or 5A Bivens claim.
The estate of a young man shot and killed across the U.S.-Mexico border by a U.S. Border Patrol agent for no reason has no Bivens claim for a Fourth or Fifth Amendment claim. Hernández v. Mesa, 2020 U.S. LEXIS 1361 … Continue reading