- W.D.Mo.: ER’s security staff conducts private searches of GSW victims
- IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop
- CA9: Going directly into pockets exceeded frisk power
- CA6: Excessive force “assault” claim under § 1983 doesn’t necessarily require contact
- N.D.Ga.: PC shown for cell phone and geo-location data
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Cell site location information
Defendant’s CSLI was obtained in 2011 in violation of the state constitution [well before Carpenter and state cases]. It is retroactive in this state. But, all things considered, it was harmless byond a reasonable doubt. Commonwealth v. Gumkowski, 2021 Mass. … Continue reading
The stop and search of defendant’s person was not constitutionally unreasonable, including the fact the officer wasn’t wearing a mask. United States v. Wright, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 83603 (D. Kan. Apr. 30, 2021). Defendant’s submissions in this excessive force … Continue reading
What is sufficient probable cause for a CSLI or tracking warrant? “After a lengthy investigation, the federal government uncovered substantial evidence that Dwayne Sheckles was a Louisville distributor for a large drug-trafficking ring. Sheckles pleaded guilty but reserved the right … Continue reading
Trash at the curb for pickup was not on the curtilage under Dunn. The area was wide open. United States v. Lipford, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 12697 (4th Cir. Apr. 28, 2021). Factual disputes aside, this much is undisputed: “The … Continue reading
CA7: Pre-Carpenter real time CSLI tracking def on streets to locate him before he committed another robbery was not unreasonable
The fact officers had probable cause to arrest is considered in determining good faith. In addition, “To conclude, we hold that Detective Ghiringhelli did not conduct a Fourth Amendment ‘search’ by requesting the real-time CSLI of a suspect for multiple … Continue reading
WI: Officer inquiring of pill bottle in plain view during traffic stop did not unreasonably extend stop
Officer in a traffic stop inquiring of a pill bottle in plain view wasn’t unreasonable under Rodriguez. State v. Crone, 2021 Wisc. App. LEXIS 192 (Apr. 20, 2021). The officer’s sticking his head inside defendant’s car and smelling marijuana was … Continue reading
Involving pre-Carpenter CSLI, the defense had valid strategic reasons to forego a motion to suppress to support the defense arguments at trial. “Because we hold that Thomas’s trial counsel did not perform deficiently because she had a reasonable strategic purpose … Continue reading
CSLI data obtained 11 years before Carpenter was obtained in good faith at the time and would not be suppressed. People v. Potts, 2021 IL App (1st) 161219, 2021 Ill. App. LEXIS 166 (Mar. 31, 2021). Defense counsel was not … Continue reading
The business records search here was not overbroad as enabling a search of all records; just for violations of firearms offenses under 18 U.S.C. § 922(a)(1). It was particular enough. United States v. Warner, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 62302 (D. … Continue reading
Affiant didn’t have to exclude the possibility of IP spoofing in a child pornography case search warrant request to show probable cause . Moreover, it wouldn’t be apparent until the forensic analysis if there was. United States v. Saterstad, 2021 … Continue reading
Failure to renew a suppression issue decided against you pretrial when the evidence is admitted is waiver in Nebraska. Besides, the issue on appeal would lose on the merits because the officer had reasonable suspicion for the stop and then … Continue reading
Defendant was long under surveillance for drug deals, and a search warrant was obtained for his person and premises. It did not include his vehicles. The search authorization did not encompass his vehicle on the premises outside the house, and … Continue reading
The acquisition of defendant’s CSLI in 2013 followed law at the time and was reasonable, and the good faith exception applied. Carpenter came four years after the trial. Lofton v. State, 2021 Ga. LEXIS 28 (Feb. 15, 2021). The officers … Continue reading
The CSLI order here pre-dated Carpenter, and it was based on probable cause. Since Carpenter wasn’t retroactive, the motion to suppress is denied. United States v. Stamat, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 14268 (D.Minn. Jan. 26, 2021).* Defendant’s CSLI was obtained … Continue reading
Geofence warrants can be used to identify those who invaded the Capitol, not to mention Facebook warrants
The government’s prior use of geofence warrants were a prelude to this: With the invasion of the Capitol on Wednesday, the government now can attempt to locate all the cell phones inside the Capitol to identify those to potentially charge. … Continue reading
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not challenging recording jail calls [actually stated as a 2254(d) failure]. Garcia v. Sec’y, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 314 (11th Cir. Jan. 6, 2021).* The CSLI warrant was particular and not a general warrant, and … Continue reading
Arstechnica: CBP’s warrantless use of cell phone location data is under investigation by Jon Brodkin (“Inspector general audits purchases of data that would otherwise require warrants.”)
MA: Obtaining CSLI by SW in 2014 was independent source against 2010 obtaining by request (and Carpenter was 2018)
The state obtained defendant’s CSLI without a showing of probable cause in 2010. In 2014, they sought it again with a search warrant. Carpenter came in 2018. The independent source doctrine applied in the 2014 search, and defense counsel wasn’t … Continue reading
WV: Officer’s subjective belief in his ability to arrest DUIs statewide was unreasonable under Heien
“However, Heien does offer some insight into the type of ‘mistake’ which may provide relief-the area upon which the circuit court below focused. The Court concluded that ‘[t]he Fourth Amendment tolerates only reasonable mistakes, and those mistakes-whether of fact or … Continue reading