- W.D.Mo.: ER’s security staff conducts private searches of GSW victims
- IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop
- CA9: Going directly into pockets exceeded frisk power
- CA6: Excessive force “assault” claim under § 1983 doesn’t necessarily require contact
- N.D.Ga.: PC shown for cell phone and geo-location data
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Privileges
WY: Where the stop exceeds its purpose and becomes unreasonable, the fact it’s de minimus doesn’t make it reasonable
Where the stop exceeded reasonableness, the district court’s finding it was de minimus was error. It was less than the time for the dog sniff, but the dog had time to arrive. Mahaffy v. State, 2021 Wyo. LEXIS 71 (May … Continue reading
NPR: When It Comes To Email, Some Prisoners Say Attorney-Client Privilege Has Been Erased by Carrie Johnson:
Defense counsel wasn’t ineffective for not raising spousal privilege to recorded jail telephone calls since there was no reasonable expectation of privacy in the calls where spousal privilege in this context hadn’t been raised before in the state. State v. … Continue reading
Defendant claims she was forced to give up her cell phone passcode in violation of the Fifth Amendment would state a ground for reversal in this Florida district, but she doesn’t show what came from the phone into the trial. … Continue reading
Defendant’s providing his iPhone passcode during his proffer session did not immunize the contents of the phone from the government’s use at trial. Kastigar hearing (a misnomer) denied. United States v. Otunyo, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30000 (D.D.C. Feb. 18, … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s complaint that his arrest was without probable cause doesn’t necessarily implicate his guilt or innocence, and it isn’t barred by Heck. He doesn’t even mention the conviction. Dizzley v. Garrett, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 4314 (4th Cir. Feb. 16, … Continue reading
Defendant had a Fifth Amendment right to not give up the unlock code to his cell phone. Utah declines to apply the foregone conclusion exception to the Fifth Amendment to attempt to require a suspect to give up his cell … Continue reading
MO: Trial court erred in shifting burden on voluntariness of consent to def and considering failure to testify at suppression hearing
The trial court erred in putting the burden of proof on the defendant to rebut the state’s claim of consent. He didn’t testify, but he cross-examined. The trial court also held against him the failure to testify. State v. Crum, … Continue reading
Defendant’s jail calls to his wife were not privileged because he knew from the recording at the start of the call that it was being recorded. Newman v. State, 2021 Tex. App. LEXIS 293 (Tex. App. – Eastland Jan. 14, … Continue reading
In a criminal copyright infringement case, a search warrant issued, and the police seized an attorney memorandum in plain view. The court finds the attorney-client privilege was waived by prior disclosure to others. United States v. Dallmann, 2020 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
D.S.D.: Seizure of work product from def’s jail cell for witness tampering was reasonable and run through a taint team
The search of defendant’s jail cell for evidence of witness tampering in his “work product” was reasonable, and the government used a taint team to segregate it. “The government’s conduct in this case was neither ill-conceived nor outrageous. It must … Continue reading
Defendant’s refusal to submit to a urine test wasn’t a Fifth Amendment violation. Motion to suppress improperly granted. State v. Awad, 2020 Ga. App. LEXIS 589 (Oct. 20, 2020):
Pretrial GPS monitoring that can tell when the accused is at his attorney’s office doesn’t violate the right to counsel, and it’s reasonable when merely monitoring whether defendant is abiding by her pretrial travel restrictions. State v. Troconis, 2020 Conn. … Continue reading
An apparent typographical error in a telephone number in a search warrant isn’t a Franks violation. United States v. Green, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 174674 (D. Minn. Sept. 23, 2020). Filter teams to protect privileged material are not per se … Continue reading
NJLJ: Analysis: Give Us Your Cell Phone Password and Constitutional Rights, Please by Louis Locascio (“The issue, of first impression, was whether requiring a defendant to disclose the passcode of his cell phone violates his protection against self-incrimination provided by … Continue reading
Defendant in a criminal case will get the benefit of a motion in limine to prevent alleged admissions under the Fifth Amendment in his forfeiture case from being used against him. United States v. Mendoza, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166898 … Continue reading
Defendant’s equal protection claim that his stop was racially motivated fails on the merits because there was a factual basis for the stop and the claim of racial bias has no evidentiary support. His effort to put the officer’s social … Continue reading
The foregone conclusion exception applies to compelling defendant’s cell phone password, thus distinguishing Pollard v. State, 287 So. 3d 649 (Fla. 1st DCA 2019). Varn v. State, 2020 Fla. App. LEXIS 12478 (Fla. 1st DCA Sept. 3, 2020):
An attempt to order a cell phone owner to provide his password to the phone is testimonial under the Fifth Amendment. The court also concludes the foregone conclusion doctrine does not apply. Garcia v. State, 2020 Fla. App. LEXIS 12232 … Continue reading