- MT: Welfare check of car was reasonable, but extending it was without RS
- OH12: Dog alert on car and def’s person didn’t justify strip search
- ID: Not unreasonable to check wants and warrants on passenger during a traffic stop
- CA6: A minimal showing of nexus is enough for GFE even where PC is lacking
- CA9: Mandated GPS tracking of e-scooters not 4A violation
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. about 35,000 posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Digital privacy
Scientific American: Yes, Phones Can Reveal if Someone Gets an Abortion by Sophie Bushwick (“To protect personal information from companies that sell data, some individuals are relying on privacy guides instead of government regulation or industry transparency.”)
Crime Report: Installing a Security Camera? In Chicago That Will Earn $$$ by TCR staff (“Chicago authorities have announced a new program that reimburses residents and businesses for installing security cameras. There’s one caveat: the cameras must be registered with … Continue reading
Orin S. Kerr, Buying Data and the Fourth Amendment, Hoover Institution, Aegis Series Paper No. 2109 (Nov. 17, 2021):
PA: No REP in data moving back and forth over a (nearly) public wifi connection where user agreement told users that
Defendant connected to the wifi at his college, and he was aware of the computing access policy that said that he had no Fourth Amendment reasonable expectation of privacy in the information that moved back and forth over his connection. … Continue reading
Engadget: The Treasury Department is buying sensitive app data for investigations by Jon Fingas (“There are concerns investigators are bypassing due process” and the Fourth Amendment. This isn’t new information.)
NYT: Facebook, Citing Societal Concerns, Plans to Shut Down Facial Recognition System (“Saying it wants ‘to find the right balance’ with the technology, the social network will delete the face scan data of more than one billion users.”)
NY Times: Hear That? It’s Your Voice Being Taken for Profit. by Joseph Turow (“Based on voice signatures, patented Google circuitry infers gender and age. A parent can program the system to turn electronic devices on or off as a … Continue reading
Ars Technica: LA police ask people they stop for their Facebook and Twitter account info by John Brodkin (“Data is fed into Palantir and helps enable “large-scale monitoring.”)
WaPo: We built a system like Apple’s to flag child sexual abuse material — and concluded the tech was dangerous
WaPo: We built a system like Apple’s to flag child sexual abuse material — and concluded the tech was dangerous by Jonathan Mayer and Anunay Kulshrestha (“We wrote the only peer-reviewed publication on how to build a system like Apple’s … Continue reading
NYTimes: The Illusion of Privacy Is Getting Harder to Sell by Greg Bensinger:
WaPo: Apple plans to scan iPhones to find sexual predators. Some fear the software could be weaponized.
WaPo: Apple plans to scan iPhones to find sexual predators. Some fear the software could be weaponized. By Reed Albergotti (“The new push pits Apple against civil liberties activists and appears to contradict some of the company’s own long-held assertions … Continue reading
WaPo: Opinion: Privacy is a fiction in the Internet age. A priest’s case proves it. (“The top administrator of the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops resigned last month after a newsletter used data from his cellphone to confirm his use … Continue reading
WaPo: A student’s rape went unsolved for 14 years. Police say the suspect gave his DNA to a genealogy database.
WaPo: A student’s rape went unsolved for 14 years. Police say the suspect gave his DNA to a genealogy database. By Katie Shepherd:
Reason: Cops Say Encryption Hinders Investigations. These Documents Say Otherwise. by J.D. Tuccille (“Law enforcers have plenty of tools; they just want to paw through our data without effort or expense.”)
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in text messages defendant sent to an undercover federal officer posing as a prostitute, despite Montana’s enhanced right of privacy under its state constitution. State v. Staker, 2021 MT 151, 2021 Mont. LEXIS … Continue reading
BBC: ANOM: Hundreds arrested in massive global crime sting using messaging app (“More than 800 suspected criminals have been arrested worldwide after being tricked into using an FBI-run encrypted messaging app, officials say. [¶] The operation, jointly conceived by Australia … Continue reading
techdirt: Defense Department Is Buying Domestic Internet Metadata From Data Brokers by Tim Cushing (“Joseph Cox broke the news for Motherboard late last year: the US military was also making use of location data purchased from data brokers, joining a … Continue reading
WaPo: Apple’s AirTag trackers made it frighteningly easy to ‘stalk’ me in a test by Geoffrey A. Fowler (“Apple knows its tiny new lost-item tracker could empower domestic abuse but doesn’t do enough to stop it.”)
The Intercept: Your Car Is Spying On You, And A CBP Contract Shows The Risks by Sam Biddle (“A ‘vehicle forensics kit’ can reveal where you’ve driven, what doors you opened, and who your friends are.”)
Brennan Center: The Government Can’t Seize Your Digital Data. Except by Buying It. by Elizabeth Goitein. Despite Carpenter: