Category Archives: Reasonable suspicion

IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop

Defendant’s parking on railroad property was trespassing at least, and it was reasonable for the officer to investigate whether it was drug use or underage drinking, what he’d usually find. “Assuming without deciding King was acting on a mere hunch … Continue reading

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D.Colo.: Federal law criminalizing marijuana makes dog sniff in recreational use state reasonable

Even though Colorado has decriminalized personal use of marijuana, a dog sniff is still reasonable under federal law because possession of marijuana is still a violation of federal law because it’s unlawful for “any purpose.” United States v. Spikes, 2021 … Continue reading

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PA: Stop for no LPN permitted running names of occupants

Not having a license plate justified defendant’s stop and then running names. Commonwealth v. Malloy, 2021 PA Super 90, 2021 Pa. Super. LEXIS 278 (May 7, 2021). The backup light being on while driving justifies a stop. People v. Ambrose, … Continue reading

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CA7: Possibility an interloper put drug residue in trash out for collection doesn’t negate PC or what it might prove

The fact it’s possible that someone else could have dropped drug residue in defendant’s trash container at the street doesn’t negate probable cause. [It also shows the lack of a reasonable expectation of privacy in trash containers at the street.] … Continue reading

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Cal.6: Fire capt’s search of cabinet of backyard shed unrelated to house fire wasn’t part of the exigency of the fire

A fire department captain in Santa Clara County searched a cabinet in a shed behind defendant’s house. The fire department was called to a house fire. He was looking for the source of smoke, and it wasn’t readily apparent the … Continue reading

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WY: Where the stop exceeds its purpose and becomes unreasonable, the fact it’s de minimus doesn’t make it reasonable

Where the stop exceeded reasonableness, the district court’s finding it was de minimus was error. It was less than the time for the dog sniff, but the dog had time to arrive. Mahaffy v. State, 2021 Wyo. LEXIS 71 (May … Continue reading

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KS: 24 minute wait for drug dog with RS wasn’t unreasonable

A wait of 24 minutes for the drug dog to arrive after reasonable suspicion developed was reasonable and not excessive. State v. Arrizabalaga, 2021 Kan. LEXIS 50 (Apr. 30, 2021). The Border Patrol request to local police to stop defendant … Continue reading

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KY: Violation of city code doesn’t justify stop

Defendant’s alleged violation of the city code, a violation, didn’t authorize a warrantless arrest and his stop. Commonwealth v. Wilson, 2021 Ky. App. LEXIS 65 (Apr. 30, 2021). Without explanation, there was probable cause for search of defendant’s cell phone … Continue reading

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FL1: Def’s setting up date via cell phone app where he sexually battered victim led to PC for SW for his cell phone

Defendant’s victim claimed to the police she was met through a phone app, sexually battered, and robbed. She identified defendant by his truck. “This information would have been enough to obtain a search warrant of Ferguson’s cell phones, even without … Continue reading

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PA: Asking for consent while DL and registration in hand unreasonably extended stop

Defendant’s alleged excessive nervousness during a traffic stop caused the officer to have him get out of the car after the warrant check came back clean. He had defendant’s DL and registration in hand when he asked for consent, and … Continue reading

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W.D.La.: When cash and heroin found in car search, a notebook could be seized

When heroin and cash were found in the search of a car based on the smell of marijuana, seizure of a notebook was reasonable. The notebook was limited information compared to a cell phone. United States v. Pierre, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading

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IA: Officer’s complying with 4A is not an element of the underlying crime for the jury

The officer’s complying with the Fourth Amendment in the stop and arrest is not an element of defendant’s crime [or any crime]. State v. Chivalan, 2021 Iowa App. LEXIS 381 (Apr. 28, 2021) [one can, in some cases, get an … Continue reading

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CA4: Trash container in open at curb was not on curtilage under Dunn factors

Trash at the curb for pickup was not on the curtilage under Dunn. The area was wide open. United States v. Lipford, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 12697 (4th Cir. Apr. 28, 2021). Factual disputes aside, this much is undisputed: “The … Continue reading

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MD: Smell of mj isn’t RS

With recreational marijuana in Maryland, the smell of marijuana alone is not reasonable suspicion. In re D.D., 2021 Md. App. LEXIS 353 (Apr. 28, 2021):

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WI: Burning mj in a house is exigency of evidence being destroyed by burning

The smell of burning marijuana is exigent circumstances because the contraband is being destroyed by burning. State v. B.W.R., 2021 Wisc. App. LEXIS 201 (Apr. 28, 2021) (unpublished). Under Birchfield, “An increased penalty for the warrantless blood draw refusal revocation … Continue reading

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IL: 16 month delay in getting SW for cell phone in police custody unreasonable

Police waiting 16 months to get a search warrant for defendant’s cell phone already in their custody was unreasonable. People v. Meakens, 2021 IL App (2d) 180991, 2021 Ill. App. LEXIS 212 (Apr. 27, 2021). The trial court erred in … Continue reading

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CA10: Def’s father’s consent to enter house was voluntary

Defendant’s father consented to officers’ entry into their house, so defendant’s Fourth Amendment rights were not violated. United States v. Guillen, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 12468 (10th Cir. Apr. 27, 2021). “While Artola putting his arm into Wheeler’s car may … Continue reading

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DE: Def had no standing to complain where govt actor entered neighbor’s property to look at his

Plaintiff had no standing to challenge a government actor’s entry into his neighbor’s property to look at his. McCafferty v. New Castle County Bd. of License, 2021 Del. Super. LEXIS 343 (Apr. 26, 2021). No matter how the court views … Continue reading

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E.D.Wis.: Def’s clothes in ER as a shooting victim were in plain view for police seizure

Defendant was in an emergency room having been shot. Having presented himself for medical treatment, his bloody clothes were cut off him, and they were reasonably seized by law enforcement officers when they were seen in plain view in white … Continue reading

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M.D.Pa.: Calling for backup before asking motorist for consent was the “Rodriguez moment” but it was with RS

“‘[T]he proper inquiry is not whether a traffic violation actually occurred, but rather whether there are facts presented that would lead a reasonable officer to believe that a violation may have occurred.’ … ‘This standard is not particularly rigorous, as … Continue reading

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