Category Archives: Dog sniff

W.D.Wash.: Dog sniff in apt building breezeway violated no REP, and it was moot anyway

On the totality, there was probable cause for cell phone search warrants. One can attempt to explain away the pieces, but the totality shows it. A dog sniff in the breezeway of an apartment complex violated no reasonable expectation of … Continue reading

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CT: Blood draw by nurse at hospital was not 4A search

The taking of a blood sample by a nurse at a hospital is not a Fourth Amendment search. State v. Ragalis, 2022 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2025 (New Britain Sept. 8, 2022). Custody under Miranda is not the same as a … Continue reading

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CA7: Shooting a man using a running chainsaw as an apparent weapon was subject to QI

Shooting a man advancing on an officer with a running chainsaw who was ignoring police commands to stop was subject to qualified immunity. Esker v. Lutz, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 23033 (7th Cir. Aug. 18, 2022).* The defendant officers’ contention … Continue reading

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CA8: Pre-Jardines dog sniff at apt door saved by GFE

Pre-Jardines dog sniff at the door of an apartment was valid when it happened, so it is saved by the good faith exception under Davis. United States v. Perez, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 22977 (8th Cir. Aug. 18, 2022). “In … Continue reading

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DE: People inside isn’t exigency for nighttime SW

The justification for a nighttime search warrant was insufficient as a matter of law. The mere presence of people in the house is not exigency. State v. Harrison, 2022 Del. Super. LEXIS 302 (July 14, 2022). The USMJ found defendant … Continue reading

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CO: Recreational MJ created privacy interest in cars from dog sniff for MJ

The state constitutional amendment legalizing recreational marijuana created a privacy interest in one’s car from a dog sniff for drugs on only reasonable suspicion. The good faith exception does not apply. People v. Lopez, 2022 COA 70M, 2022 Colo. App. … Continue reading

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CA4: Asking motorist whether he is armed relates to officer safety

Asking motorist whether he is armed relates to officer safety, and it is reasonable during a stop. United States v. Racer, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 18664 (4th Cir. July 7, 2022). Dog sniff outside an apartment door didn’t violate any … Continue reading

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Cal.6: Calling drug dog before the stop helped show the stop was prolonged for dog’s arrival

The officer unreasonably prolonged the stop for the arrival of the drug dog. While subjective intentions aren’t determinative under Whren, here the officer called for the drug dog before the stop even happened. People v. Ayon, 2022 Cal. App. LEXIS … Continue reading

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CO: Dog sniff after legal possession became law suppressed; no RS

A dog sniff after Amendment 64 legalized personal possession of marijuana in Colorado was unjustified, unreasonable, and suppressed. Other case law already put the issue in doubt before this search occurred. There was no reason to suspect the occupants of … Continue reading

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CA7: Inevitable impoundment of car mooted claim dog jumped in car

Defendant’s car was inevitably going to be searched after impoundment, so the question of the drug dog jumping into the car doesn’t have to be decided. United States v. Overton, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 16158 (7th Cir. June 13, 2022). … Continue reading

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D.Ariz.: Nighttime search rule doesn’t bar nighttime arrest warrant execution

As to arrest warrants, Rule 41 and 21 U.S.C. § 879 aren’t clear on whether a nighttime entry is barred for execution of an arrest warrant. (Tie goes to the government on reasonableness.) A violation of knock-and-announce doesn’t invoke the … Continue reading

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CA3: Customs searches occur to and from VI; here bag was put into baggage claim to see who claimed it

Customs can search bags coming to and from the Virgin Islands. Here, bags on an airplane were searched and it was returned to baggage claim to see who picked it up, and that was reasonable. United States v. Forde, 2022 … Continue reading

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OH12: Dog alert on car and def’s person didn’t justify strip search

There was reasonable suspicion for and continuing defendant’s stop. A dog sniff was permitted. The dog’s alert, however, didn’t permit a strip search of defendant. It did permit a search of the person. State v. Owensby, 2022-Ohio-1702, 2022 Ohio App. … Continue reading

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ID: Not unreasonable to check wants and warrants on passenger during a traffic stop

“This appeal arises out of a traffic stop where a single officer, without having reasonable suspicion that a crime involving the passenger was afoot, checked the passenger for outstanding warrants. The officer used her patrol vehicle’s computer and received a … Continue reading

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RI: Commercial fishing is a “closely regulated industry” and a vessel’s monitoring system could be examined

Commercial fishing is a closely regulated industry. “Appellant also had a sea scallop permit, requiring the vessel to have a vessel monitoring system (VMS), which transmits global positioning system (GPS) coordinates every half hour to the National Marine Fisheries Service.” … Continue reading

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NJ: Alleged third party consenter had no apparent authority

The third-party consent here was invalid because there was no reason to believe they had apparent authority. State v. Marcellus, 2022 N.J. Super. LEXIS 69 (May 18, 2022). The vehicle safety checkpoint was set up with a valid programmatic purpose, … Continue reading

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UT: IAC shown for not challenging dog alert

The initial dog alert here did not provide probable cause for search of defendant’s vehicle. Thus, defense counsel was ineffective for not pursuing a Fourth Amendment challenge. “In summary, based on the record before us, a motion to suppress the … Continue reading

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ID: Calling for drug dog before RS existed extended the stop

During the traffic stop, the diversion to call for a drug dog was without reasonable suspicion and it extended the stop. State v. Still, 166 Idaho 351, 458 P.3d 220 (App. 2019), is overruled. State v. Karst, 2022 Ida. LEXIS … Continue reading

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TX4: No REP in totaled car at the wrecker yard

Defendant totaled his car in an accident. The black box evidence was sought by warrant, but the court holds that defendant effectively abandoned the car to the wrecking yard. Vitela v. State, 2022 Tex. App. LEXIS 2759 (Tex. App. – … Continue reading

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CA7: There is no “one-frisk-only rule”

“‘[A] one-frisk-only rule would create a privacy-adverse Fourth Amendment incentive’ for officers to perform ‘the most intrusive frisk possible the first time around, knowing that no more would be allowed.’” Here, there was reasonable suspicion for both frisks. United States … Continue reading

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