- KS: Passenger had no standing in car he bought for girlfriend
- IA: Warrantless entry for misdemeanor charge unreasonable
- W.D.Ky.: Arrest warrant doesn’t require executing officer to check into PC for it
- N.D.Okla.: Where there is a SW for a vehicle, def’s automobile exception argument is moot
- D.Minn.: Automobile exception applied to RV with engine not on blocks; was capable of movement
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Probation / Parole search
State parole officers with reasonable suspicion defendant was involved in drugs could seize and search his cell phone. United States v. Devaughn, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 5406 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 11, 2022). There was no reasonable suspicion for a probation search … Continue reading
There was reasonable suspicion for the probation search of defendant’s house based on his wife’s report that he was using meth again. The supervisory PO authorized a warrantless entry if necessary. The record is limited as to the reasonableness of … Continue reading
A helpful explanation of the Heck bar to Fourth Amendment claims is Cordova v. Imperial Cnty. Narcotics Task Force, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 3993 (S.D.Cal. Jan. 7, 2022).* Plaintiff lost her excessive force claim, and the defendants sought attorneys fees … Continue reading
Plaintiff is a police officer who was apparently drunk in the Detroit airport after returning to Michigan with his children for Thanksgiving weekend. He ended up being arrested and sued. He understood he was impaired and was going to have … Continue reading
The purely private search of defendant’s cell phone finding child pornography that was reported to police was not subject to exclusion under Texas’s art. 38.23(a). If a laptop search is not subject to exclusion, neither is a cell phone. Horne … Continue reading
NCMEC is not a government actor for Fourth Amendment purposes. Even if it was, its search did not exceed that of the private searcher that forwarded the information to it. “Because Meals has not carried his burden concerning NCMEC’s participation … Continue reading
When a sheriff’s deputy came on the curtilage to talk to defendant, defendant asserted his right to a warrant and refused to talk to him. While there were no No Trespassing signs, defendant’s assertion was enough to manifest his reasonable … Continue reading
Defendant was placed on electronic monitoring for his pretrial release in a gun case. The conditions he agreed to included home inspections necessary to determine his adherence to conditions. When the device signaled it had been tampered with, pretrial officers … Continue reading
The fact a female prison guard saw the male plaintiff inmate sitting on a toilet during count didn’t violate his Fourth Amendment rights. Sublett v. Hall, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 241273 (W.D.Ky. Dec. 17, 2021).* No reasonable jury could conclude … Continue reading
“Wimer contends that the probation officers who visited his home lacked reasonable suspicion to search his person. We find that, based on the totality of the circumstances, the officers had reasonable suspicion to search him. At the outset of the … Continue reading
The search warrant for defendant’s cell phone sought everything on it when a limited time period was at issue. The law is settled in New York. “Here, the search warrant issued allows for an essentially unrestrained search of defendant’s cell … Continue reading
Defendant lacked standing to contest the detention of a package in transit in the Post Office because he was neither shown as the addressee nor the recipient. Even so, there was reasonable suspicion to detain the package. The dog sniff … Continue reading
The Coast Guard had the authority under 14 U.S.C. § 522(a) to conduct a pollution inspection of defendant’s vessel and look at the Oil Record Book. “The Coast Guard’s preliminary examination of the Oil Record Book and Oily Water Separator … Continue reading
The officer’s mistaken view of the law allegedly justifying the stop was not objectively reasonable under Heien and thus completely without reasonable suspicion. State v. Jonas, 2021-NCCOA-660, 2021 N.C. App. LEXIS 678 (Dec. 7, 2021). This probation search was valid: … Continue reading
CA6: Individual officer not responsible for process that denied ptf prompt PC hearing under Riverside
While an arrested person has a right to a prompt judicial determination of probable cause for the arrest, it’s not necessarily on the officer to get the person before a magistrate. “[I]t was not objectively unreasonable for Wynkoop to expect … Continue reading
D.Conn.: Flight from the police with abandonment of stuff obviates the need to decide RS for the stop
Defendant’s flight from the police and abandonment of items in flight was not while he was “seized.” Thus, the need to decide reasonable suspicion for a stop is obviated. United States v. Sockwell, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 215294 (D.Conn. Nov. … Continue reading
KS: Officer did not have to rely on def’s representation AW was being withdrawn; dispatch confirmed it was still valid before arrest
There was an arrest warrant for defendant, but it was vacated by the issuing court eight hours after defendant’s arrest. Defense counsel was trying to get it vacated at the time. “Here, Rollf testified that under department policy, after dispatch … Continue reading
The state failed in its burden of proof that defendant was lawfully stopped and then detained as a possible suspect in a crime even though he was a probationer. His clothing didn’t match. It was prolonged way past its justification. … Continue reading
The officer relied in good faith, as in Herring, upon dispatch saying that defendant had a probation search waiver on file. She argued that she had a suspended sentence and never agreed to a search waiver and the suspended sentence … Continue reading