- OR: For particularity in electronic devices, specify what will be found
- W.D.N.C.: Traffic stop for expired tags went right to criminal history and was overlong
- ID rejects “reasonable mistake of law” and Heien under state constitution; state’s exclusionary rule is broader
- CA6: Even if harassment was a basis to exclude a parole search, it wasn’t shown here
- ID: Drug dog putting feet on car door and window during stiff was a trespass on the chattel and the search should have been suppressed
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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
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Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact: forhall @ aol.com / The Book
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Probation / Parole search
CA2: No REP shown in porch shared with neighbor
Defendant shared a porch with his neighbor and made no effort to show a reasonable expectation of privacy in it. United States v. Lewis, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 6689 (2d Cir. Mar. 21, 2023).* The exclusionary rule doesn’t apply in … Continue reading
N.D.Cal.: Key fob on parolee’s person means car under his control even if elsewhere
Defendant parolee was a passenger in a car and he had his car key fob on him. The car, albeit not there, was still “under his control” for a parole search, relying on United States v. Cervantes, 859 F.3d 1175 … Continue reading
CA: Unreasonable stop and running warrants revealed def was on parole; suspicionless parole search unreasonable
A man on the street was stopped by police for no apparent reason. A records check revealed he was on parole with a warrantless search waiver on file. The warrantless search of his person was unreasonable, and the exclusionary rule … Continue reading
CO: Probation search condition of all electronic devices was unreasonable
A sex offender’s probation condition that requires unfettered access to defendant’s electronic devices is unreasonable. It has to be tailored to the need. People v. Silvanic, 2023 COA 16, 2023 Colo. App. LEXIS 217 (Feb. 16, 2023). A probation search … Continue reading
S.D.Ill.: Running away from a stopped car saying it’s not yours is abandonment
Defendant was stopped for overtinted windows and speeding. He got out and refused to get back in. Finally, he ran away saying the car was not his. That’s abandonment. United States v. Wiley, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 22439 (S.D. Ill. … Continue reading
KS: Chance of suicide justified public safety stop
Finding a car parked in a place where people notoriously went to commit suicide justified this public safety encounter. The officer smelled marijuana coming from the car and searched it. State v. McDonald, 2023 Kan. App. LEXIS 5 (Feb. 3, … Continue reading
S.D.N.Y.: Pending recalculation of time on parole didn’t affect legality of parole search
Defendant’s state remaining parole time was subjected to recalculation but it hadn’t happened by the time of the parole search based on a tip he had a firearm. Therefore it was reasonable. Alternatively, it was by consent. United States v. … Continue reading
CA8: PC parolee home is required for a parole search
Probable cause, not reasonable suspicion, is required for belief the parolee is at his residence for a parole search. Surveys conflicting authorities, even from the same district court. United States v. Thabit, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 169 (8th Cir. Jan. … Continue reading
OR: Computer hard drive with contraband could be destroyed with guilty plea
By defendant’s plea to a sex and child porn offense, the state could destroy the computer hard drives where the contraband was found. The seizure was in 2003, and the trial was 2017. State v. Forker, 323 Or. App. 323 … Continue reading
CA8: “[E]ven if a technical violation of Nebraska law occurred when signing the warrant that is not a basis for suppressing the evidence” under 4A
“[E]ven if a technical violation of Nebraska law occurred when signing the warrant that is not a basis for suppressing the evidence” under the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Becker, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 35626 (8th Cir. Dec. 27, 2022). … Continue reading
NY3: On parole out of your county and lying about travels RS for parole search
Defendant was on parole and stopped outside his residence county. That was reasonable suspicion for a parole search. Plus, defendant’s multiple and inconsistent explanations about his travels, which the police officers knew were false, coupled with his parole situation and … Continue reading
CA3: Scope of curtilage argument changed on appeal and thus waived
This case involved an argument about what is curtilage around a tent and firepit. Explosives were found outside this curtilage. On appeal, the scope of curtilage changed, and it’s waived. United States v. Madziarek, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 34076 (3d … Continue reading
Cal.3d: Parole search of glove compartment of car where parolee was backseat passenger was unreasonable
The parole search of a car’s glove compartment because of a parolee backseat passenger was unreasonable. Because the glove compartment was locked, it wasn’t possible for the key in the ignition to be used to unlock it while the vehicle … Continue reading
OH1: Failure to follow probation search statute doesn’t require exclusion
Defendant’s argument that the probation search statute wasn’t followed doesn’t require exclusion. That’s for constitutional violations. State v. Clardy, 2022-Ohio-4300, 2022 Ohio App. LEXIS 4070 (1st Dist. Dec. 2, 2022); State v. Kellett, 2022-Ohio-4340, 2022 Ohio App. LEXIS 4088 (5th … Continue reading
MI: Automobile repair business is pervasively regulated
The trial court erred in suppressing the search of defendant’s automobile repair business which was a pervasively regulated business. The search was during the work week during regular hours and was for evidence of compliance with the Motor Vehicle Service … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: Parole search can occur when parolee not home
Defendant was on state parole living with his girlfriend, also a defendant. They were out and her mother was their babysitter in the home. Parole came by for a compliance check. The mother let them in. First, the search was … Continue reading
W.D.N.Y.: RS for parole search of house justified by failure to report, curfew and travel violations, and tampering with GPS
A parolee’s “fail[ure] to report to the parole office, staying out past curfew, traveling out of his parole-approved area, and tampering with his GPS monitor” justified a parole search of the home. United States v. Jackson, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading