- MT: Welfare check of car was reasonable, but extending it was without RS
- OH12: Dog alert on car and def’s person didn’t justify strip search
- ID: Not unreasonable to check wants and warrants on passenger during a traffic stop
- CA6: A minimal showing of nexus is enough for GFE even where PC is lacking
- CA9: Mandated GPS tracking of e-scooters not 4A violation
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Prison and jail searches
The Michigan Supreme Court remanded Long Lake Twp. v. Maxon, 2021 Mich. App. LEXIS 1819 (Mar. 18, 2021) (posted here) to determine below whether the exclusionary rule should apply in a zoning case. Long Lake Twp. v. Maxon, 2022 Mich. … Continue reading
A person in prison has no standing to contest a wiretap on a contraband cell phone. United States v. Yandell, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 91166 (E.D.Cal. May 20, 2022). “The facts of this case indicate that [Officer] Leitzen, while conducting … Continue reading
Any error in the search warrant return does not affect the search itself. Therefore, it can’t form a basis for suppression. Defendant also disclaimed any interest in the property at the time of the search. State v. McClendon, 2022-Ohio-1441, 2022 … Continue reading
Defendant was on a state bail condition that authorized warrantless searches. In a traffic stop, the officer had at least reasonable suspicion of drug activity in the vehicle. The search was reasonable under both. As to the bail condition, there … Continue reading
USA Today: Opinion: Prisons overuse strip searches to dehumanize people like me. End this horrific practice now.
USA Today: Opinion: Prisons overuse strip searches to dehumanize people like me. End this horrific practice now. (“New York, where I was incarcerated, should respect the bodily integrity and human dignity of those it holds in prison, as should every … Continue reading
D.Ore.: Detailed extra information to provide context that ultimately proves unnecessary to the PC finding doesn’t make the warrant bad
“SA Nix’s 56-page affidavit provides detailed information that is directly connected to an evasion of payment charge. Those few sentences or portions of sentences that pertain exclusively to an evasion of tax assessment charge have a de minimis impact on … Continue reading
Plaintiff stated a § 1983 claim that a jail phone provider recorded attorney calls. Kurtenbach v. Securus Techs., 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 54089 (D.S.D. Mar. 25, 2022). Colorado grants immunity from crimes found as a result of a call about … Continue reading
One search warrant for searching defendant’s phone with Cellebrite was without time limitation and was overbroad. People v. Gonzalez, 2022 NY Slip Op 22074, 2022 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 928 (N.Y.Co. Mar. 7, 2022). Defendant claimed his jail calls after 48 … Continue reading
While the pretrial inmate handbook didn’t say that outgoing mail was subject to inspection, the Supreme Court held in Stroud in 1919 that such searches were reasonable. And this one was too. United States v. Polanco, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
The search warrant wasn’t executed within 10 days as required by statute where it had to be returned to the court if not. Suppressed. People v. Tonner, 2022 NY Slip Op 50175(U), 2022 N.Y. Misc. LEXIS 833 (N.Y. Co. Feb. … Continue reading
A 12 hour delay past the 48 hour McLaughlin rule for a finding of probable cause was not shown to be unreasonable because of Covid delays and the temporary shutdown of the St. Louis federal courthouse for cleaning. United States … Continue reading
Defendant continued to flee when he was finally Tasered. Then he was seized. United States v. Jeffers, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 3131 (10th Cir. Feb. 3, 2022). Plaintiff complains that inmate porters came into his prison cell and went through … Continue reading
“Because it is the First and Fourteenth Amendment, and not the Fourth Amendment’s prohibition against unreasonable search and seizure that protects against the reading and confiscation of legal mail by prison officials, the Court will dismiss Plaintiff’s Fourth Amendment claim … Continue reading
Plaintiff has no standing to complain of a knock-and-announce violation of another person. “Here, Plaintiff does not even claim that he had a legitimate expectation of privacy in McMullen’s house. But even if he did make such a claim, the … Continue reading
Appellant’s motion to reopen his appeal to reargue his Fourth Amendment claims is denied. Not one thing he proffers can change the outcome of the appeal. There was a basis for a GPS warrant on his vehicle, and there was … Continue reading
Defendants were in jail together, in separate cells 20′ apart (#1 & #4) and talking about their case through the doors’ openings. Jailers could overhear them. “When jail personnel noticed that defendants were communicating with each other by speaking loudly … Continue reading
A criminal defense lawyer stated a claim against a private prison operator under the wiretapping laws for recording attorney-client calls. Bliss v. Corecivic, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 10953 (D.Nev. Jan. 18, 2022). 2254 petitioner’s illegal search claim barred by Stone. … Continue reading
The public electric utility cutting off one’s power is not a Fourth Amendment seizure. Lull v. County of Sacramento, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 1408 (9th Cir. Jan. 19, 2022). There was probable cause on the totality, including a showing of … Continue reading