- W.D.Mo.: ER’s security staff conducts private searches of GSW victims
- IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop
- CA9: Going directly into pockets exceeded frisk power
- N.D.Ga.: PC shown for cell phone and geo-location data
- E.D.Tenn.: Def first refused consent to DNA then sought it; initial refusal not excluded
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonable expectation of privacy
CA7: Possibility an interloper put drug residue in trash out for collection doesn’t negate PC or what it might prove
The fact it’s possible that someone else could have dropped drug residue in defendant’s trash container at the street doesn’t negate probable cause. [It also shows the lack of a reasonable expectation of privacy in trash containers at the street.] … Continue reading
“First, the court did not clearly err in finding that Gage had abandoned any reasonable expectation of privacy in the backpack by telling Officer Robinson that the group had just retrieved the backpack from a garbage dump and that he … Continue reading
In a fence line dispute, defendants’ posting a 25’ high pole camera watching plaintiff’s property stated a claim for intrusion on seclusion. Jackman v. Cebrink-Swartz, 2021 Fla. App. LEXIS 4321 (Fla. 2d DCA Mar. 26, 2021). So how will this … Continue reading
An audio recording on a nanny cam evidencing an assault on the children should not have been suppressed. The babysitter had no reasonable expectation of privacy in the home of the children she was “caring” for. “That is to say … Continue reading
Defendant’s apartment had a box placed out on the ledge below a window visible to passersby. This was not part of the curtilage because it was visible and accessible to others. (Moreover, officers got a search warrant for it. ) … Continue reading
The search warrant here was particular because it incorporated the affidavit by reference, and they were attached. United States v. Evans Landscaping Inc., 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 8152 (6th Cir. Mar. 18, 2021). Defendant has no reasonable expectation of privacy … Continue reading
The township’s use of a drone to fly over defendant’s property to take pictures for a zoning dispute violated their reasonable expectation of privacy. The state legislature said that they have one from drone usage. Long Lake Twp. v. Maxon, … Continue reading
OH5: Def didn’t abandon cell phone but it was still reasonable for officer to turn it on to see if he could ID owner
Defendant did not abandon his cell phone by leaving it charging in a vehicle (actually, it had fallen out but the charging cable was attached) where he was away from it. However, the officer reasonably could turn on the phone … Continue reading
M.D.Pa.: Tent in an open field might have had REP, but it was open to view inside and plain view applied
Assuming defendant’s tent in an “open field” area had a reasonable expectation of privacy (as the Ninth Circuit would hold), the tent was open and the officer could see in. There was no curtilage to the tent in an open … Continue reading
After a police foot chase, officers entered an unlocked basement of an apartment building and found a firearm that looked like one they were looking for. Defendant can’t show a reasonable expectation of privacy in the basement because everybody in … Continue reading
OH12: State’s “reasonable mistake of fact” justification for stop has to be raised in trial court first
The state didn’t rely on a “reasonable mistake of fact” justification for the stop in the trial court, so it can’t for appeal. State v. Turner, 2021-Ohio-541, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 564 (12th Dist. Mar. 1, 2021). Defendant had some … Continue reading
Despite being a gunshot victim and gunshot injuries being reported to police, defendant had a reasonable expectation of privacy in the emergency room from officers coming in to search his pants pockets. People v. Pearson, 2021 IL App (2d) 190833, … Continue reading
A probationer wearing a GPS ankle monitor has no reasonable expectation of privacy in the information that linked him to an armed robbery while he was on probation. State in the interest of T.B., 2021 La. App. LEXIS 188 (La. … Continue reading
Defendant had no objective reasonable expectation of privacy in an apartment he wrongfully entered and assaulted the occupant. A black case he kept there had a subjective expectation of privacy but not an objective one. United States v. John, 2021 … Continue reading
“Ultimately, the Court need not decide which side of the Ramirez-Merriweather line [of probable cause] this case falls. It suffices to say that, especially because the search warrant affidavit makes no mention of any communications involving Jackson’s cell phone, it … Continue reading
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in cell phone subscriber information such that a warrant is required to obtain it v. a subpoena duces tecum. United States v. Brooks, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 40561 (3d Cir. Dec. 29, 2020). … Continue reading
A rehabilitation center resident’s son put a video camera in his father’s room because of the father’s concern that “strange things” were happening there at night. The resident wanted his son to stay there but he couldn’t because of his … Continue reading