- D.Nev.: Affidavits for SWs don’t have to prove the underlying crimes
- D.V.I.: Flyover of curtilage from navigable airspace was reasonable
- NJ: Disputes in the facts on appeal show trial court should have held a hearing
- NY: Second SW for phone a year later after first SW failed to show PC wasn’t timely
- GA: Not objecting to mention of “probation” search at trial was not IAC
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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
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Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact: forhall @ aol.com / The Book
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Third Party Doctrine
D.Colo.: Bank records have no REP so they can be obtained for restitution purposes
There is no reasonable expectation of privacy in bank records, and the government can obtain them to enforce a restitution order. United States v. Osborn, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 90076 (D. Colo. May 23, 2023). Defendant doesn’t get a Franks … Continue reading
N.D.Ala.: No REP in DEA’s license plate reader database
“First, Officer Josh Powers did not violate Toombs’ Fourth Amendment rights by accessing license plate reader data from the Department of Justice’s Drug Enforcement Administration System Information License (‘DEASIL’). Second, Powers had reasonable suspicion of criminal activity when he extended … Continue reading
ABA: Regulating Forensic Genetic Genealogy: Balancing Privacy Concerns with the Needs of Law Enforcement in a Time of Consumer DNA Testing Services
Regulating Forensic Genetic Genealogy: Balancing Privacy Concerns with the Needs of Law Enforcement in a Time of Consumer DNA Testing Services by Devinder Hans (ABA Mar. 28, 2023)
PA: No standing to challenge Google SW for who searched rape victim’s name before crime
In a home invasion rape case, the state sought from Google search information involving the victim’s name in the 48 hours before the rape, and there were searches for that from defendant’s IP address. Defendant had no reasonable expectation of … Continue reading
ars technica: FBI finally admits to buying location data on Americans, horrifying experts
ars technica: FBI finally admits to buying location data on Americans, horrifying experts by Ashley Belanger (“FBI director denied that the agency currently purchases location data.”)
SCOTUS has a third-party records tax summons case, but not necessarily a 4A case, yet; it might become one
Added to Most Recent SCOTUS cases is Polselli v. Internal Revenue Service, 21-1599, cert. gr. Dec. 9, 2022, argument Mar. 29, 2023 (ScotusBlog). It is a third-party records summons case where the parties’ cert papers don’t even mention the Fourth … Continue reading
techdirt: Government Continues To Rely On Private Contractors To Bypass Privacy Protections
techdirt: Government Continues To Rely On Private Contractors To Bypass Privacy Protections by Tim Cushing (“There’s only so much domestic surveillance the government can engage in before it starts running into problems. The Supreme Court’s Carpenter decision strongly suggested gathering … Continue reading
Gizmodo: ‘Gap’ in App Store Rules Endangers Reproductive Data, [only 9] Top Law Enforcement Chiefs Say
Gizmodo: ‘Gap’ in App Store Rules Endangers Reproductive Data, Top Law Enforcement Chiefs Say by Dell Cameron (“Attorneys general in nine states and the District of Columbia are urging Apple this week to introduce new App Store requirements designed to … Continue reading
WaPo: Google reaches record $392M privacy settlement over location data
WaPo: Google reaches record $392M privacy settlement over location data by Bryan Pietsch (“Google agreed to pay $391.5 million to 40 states to settle an investigation into its location tracking practices, a coalition of state attorneys general announced Monday. The … Continue reading
MA: Def not prejudiced by third party’s response to SW
A third party in possession of Medicaid records was served with a search warrant, and appellant complains of the procedural nature of the third party’s response. [Aside from no standing,] Appellant doesn’t even attempt to show that the exclusionary rule … Continue reading
E.D.N.Y.: Rental car GPS data not comparable to CSLI; it’s just third-party information
Rental car location tracking is significantly different from CSLI. It is purely third-party information. Moreover, the rental car company consented to the taking of the information. United States v. Brown, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166119 (E.D.N.Y. Sept. 14, 2022). The … Continue reading
E.D.Tenn.: Walmart Pay records do not require SW
A search warrant isn’t needed for investigators to access information from Walmart Pay. Carpenter doesn’t apply. United States v. Whipple, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 153126 (E.D. Tenn. Aug. 25, 2022). A claim that the officer presented false information to get … Continue reading
CA1: Suit v. IRS for third-party records retention might state claim, remanded
The taxpayer’s third-party financial records suit was not barred by the Anti-Injunction Act. It was not against collection of a tax, but the government retaining records. Remanded to consider other issues as well. Harper v. Rettig, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
Reason: Houston Says Businesses Must Install Surveillance Cameras and Cops Can View Footage Without a Warrant
Reason: Houston Says Businesses Must Install Surveillance Cameras and Cops Can View Footage Without a Warrant by Elizabeth Nolan Brown:
M.D.Tenn.: Copies of what were notarized kept by the notary are third-party records
Defendant had documents notarized at a Nashville law office where the practice of the lawyer-notary, not required by law, to copy what was notarized, and they did it for free. The government found out about it and subpoenaed the records. … Continue reading
CA3: Bank records still have no REP under Carpenter
Defendant’s bank records were subject to the third-party doctrine which was not changed by Carpenter. United States v. Hall, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 6425 (3d Cir. Mar. 14, 2022):
CA1: Third-party doctrine applies to prescription drug monitoring program
This is an action to enforce a DEA administrative subpoena to the New Hampshire Prescription Drug Monitoring Program for specific prescriptions. The court declines to equate prescription records with other medical records because the pharmacy industry is closely regulated. It … Continue reading
New York Daily News: Is our government buying our data? We need a federal investigation.
New York Daily News: Is our government buying our data? We need a federal investigation. by Elizabeth Holtzman and Mark Udall (Nov. 18, 2021) (“Tech companies, eager to sell us ads, promise to anonymize any of our shared data, a … Continue reading