- KS: Passenger had no standing in car he bought for girlfriend
- IA: Warrantless entry for misdemeanor charge unreasonable
- W.D.Ky.: Arrest warrant doesn’t require executing officer to check into PC for it
- N.D.Okla.: Where there is a SW for a vehicle, def’s automobile exception argument is moot
- D.Minn.: Automobile exception applied to RV with engine not on blocks; was capable of movement
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Good faith exception
IA: Conflict of laws: Federal SW that ends up in state prosecution governed by federal law, not state
When a federal search warrant results in a state prosecution, federal law applies to the search in state court. Here it applied to a scope of search question that might have been decided differently under state law. This court held … Continue reading
The inventory here wasn’t complete because defendant’s cell phone wasn’t in the inventory and apparently left behind. [Now that’s ironic.] A gun and ammunition were. Because they are dangerous instrumentalities, that makes the inventory reasonable. “It is not obvious to … Continue reading
A state unsigned warrant was subject to the good faith exception where the issuing magistrate did everything but sign. The magistrate signed the application on the back of the state-mandated form and initialed the warrant. The court doesn’t go so … Continue reading
The affidavit for the search warrant for defendant’s place lacked probable cause. “As the affidavit did not establish probable cause as to forgery or possession of stolen property, and the government conceded there was not probable cause to support the … Continue reading
D.Mass.: SW for def’s old car and iPhone on two-year-old information they were maybe connected to a murder was stale and probative of little; no GFE either
There was no probable cause for the search of defendant’s house for evidence of a nearly two-year-old murder. Even if what was sought was there, it was highly unlikely it would prove anything. Finally, the probable cause was so lacking … Continue reading
The maintaining one’s lane statute has long been construed to require that any movement be unsafe. The officer’s mistaken belief defendant violated the statute here without being unsafe was unreasonable under Heien and state cases. Daniel v. State, 2021 Tex. … Continue reading
OH: Lack of judge’s signature on actual arrest warrant not fatal where judge signed off on complaint; GFE also applies
The absence of the judge’s signature on an arrest warrant was not fatal where the affidavit for probable cause sworn by the witness was attested to by the judge and attached. The good faith exception also applies. (Finally, the state’s … Continue reading
The good faith exception applies to this warrantless detention which resulted from a regular state computer request which flagged to “verify insurance.” United States v. Warren, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 37674 (6th Cir. Dec. 20, 2021):
The tow and inventory of the car defendant was driving, his grandmother’s, without a valid license was an abuse of the officer’s discretion. Here, the vehicle was parked in the grandmother’s driveway when the stop occurred. The officer’s practice of … Continue reading
“Suppression of digital photographs, videos and bank records that fell outside the April 1, 2019 through October 25, 2019 timeframe seized from the Subject Device is not warranted, as the December 2020 Warrant was sufficiently particularized and not overbroad.” On … Continue reading
The affidavit for search warrant here failed to show probable cause at all. It relied on informant hearsay from an identified informant. The trial court erroneously concluded that an identified informant didn’t have to be corroborated. In addition, probable cause … Continue reading
This 2255 petitioner argued his defense lawyer didn’t properly argue application of the good faith exception in the direct appeal, but doesn’t say how the case could have come out different. Also, the briefs and opinion on appeal show that … Continue reading
The affidavit for the warrant for one particular address in this case fails to even minimally show probable cause. “Here, there was not enough information in the affidavit to allow a reasonable officer to conclude that there was sufficient ‘ongoing … Continue reading
In a 2255, a state search warrant on Indian lands issued and executed 16 years before McGirt v. Oklahoma was not subject to suppression because it was obtained and executed in good faith based on law at the time. United … Continue reading
There was probable cause for the first and second search warrants for child pornography on defendant’s devices (took ~100 pages to say that). No exclusionary rule; good faith exception applies, too. United States v. Pena, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 218914 … Continue reading
Defendant does not get a hearing on application of the good faith exception. The papers as a whole establish it for the government. The affidavit for the warrant showed sufficient information from observations for an inference that drugs were being … Continue reading
The good faith exception is here directly applied to a warrantless stop and resulting search because of a “reasonable” mistake of law. United States v. McBroom, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 215219 (W.D.Pa. Nov. 8. 2021):
KS: Officer did not have to rely on def’s representation AW was being withdrawn; dispatch confirmed it was still valid before arrest
There was an arrest warrant for defendant, but it was vacated by the issuing court eight hours after defendant’s arrest. Defense counsel was trying to get it vacated at the time. “Here, Rollf testified that under department policy, after dispatch … Continue reading
CA9: “[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.”
“[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.” United States v. Ordaz, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32449 (6th Cir. Oct. 29, 2021). Pre-Carpenter … Continue reading
N.D.Ohio: Where there was no nexus and whether GFE should apply was a really close question, govt essentially gets the benefit of the doubt
“For the reasons that follow, the Court DENIES Defendant Eben Anderson’s motion to suppress. With respect to Defendant Anthony Anderson, the affidavit supporting the warrant lacks probable cause justifying the search because there is no nexus between the phones and … Continue reading