- TX1: Voluntariness of consent shown by officers’ efforts to insure def understood what they were asking
- WA: Request for proof of payment of a bus fare is not a search
- S.D.Fla.: PC for constructive possession shown; def doesn’t have to handle firearm in video
- E.D.Tenn.: You post to Facebook at your peril; there is no REP in Facebook “friends”
- N.D.Okla.: Motion to suppress must allege basis to overcome GFE, too
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Administrative search
Atlanta Black Star: ‘We Said No’: Los Angeles Officers Storm Black Couple’s Home Hours After They Refused a Blood Draw for Their Newborn Daughter Following a Home Birth
Atlanta Black Star: ‘We Said No’: Los Angeles Officers Storm Black Couple’s Home Hours After They Refused a Blood Draw for Their Newborn Daughter Following a Home Birth by Niara Savage (“A Black Los Angeles couple says officers stormed their … Continue reading
A massage parlor is a closely regulated business under New York v. Burger, and it has been for 40 years. The operators thus had no reasonable expectation of privacy against inspections. Killgore v. City of S. El Monte, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading
There is no constitutional right to pre-enforcement challenge to an OSHA administrative warrant. “FFG contends that it has the constitutional right to a pre-execution challenge of OSHA’s warrant. [Doc. 14 at 4-5]. After a review of the record, the Court … Continue reading
Trash at the curb for pickup was not on the curtilage under Dunn. The area was wide open. United States v. Lipford, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 12697 (4th Cir. Apr. 28, 2021). Factual disputes aside, this much is undisputed: “The … Continue reading
“The Court concludes the test-firing of the weapon was a search. It was test-fired for one sole purpose and that was to gain identifying data on the retained shell casing for subsequent submission to a database of shell casings obtained … Continue reading
CA2: Even if an administrative search was pretext for a criminal search, there was an independent basis for later SW
Defendants argued that an administrative search was a pretext for a criminal search. A later search warrant was based on independent information from state wiretaps. “Here, assuming arguendo that the administrative search was improper, suppression of the evidence obtained from … Continue reading
A city inspector followed state statute and entered upon a homeowner’s property after he saw a deck and above ground pool being built in violation of the local housing code. The entry was reasonable and did not require a administrative … Continue reading
IL: Ct of Apps erred in reaching 4A claim in civil discovery dispute involving state AG when it didn’t have to
This case involves a civil discovery dispute between the state and a recycling business for an environmental inspection. The court of appeals erred in jumping to a Fourth Amendment claim without attempting to decide the case on nonconstitutional grounds under … Continue reading
The Department of Environmental Conservation needed only a programmatic purpose for its administrative probable cause for a court order for access to respondent’s property. Matter of State of New York, Department of Environmental Conservation v. 735 Bedford LLC, 2020 NY … Continue reading
KS: One who doesn’t have an administrative license can’t challenge the administrative search scheme under it
An unlicensed entertainment establishment has no standing to challenge the administrative search provision under the licensing scheme. City of Wichita v. Trotter, 2020 Kan. App. LEXIS 69 (Sept. 25, 2020):
CT Tax & Admin.: Order to DoC employees to search their cell phones for public records was excessive
An agency order to employees to search their personal cell phones for copies of public records is in excess of agency authority. Comm’r of the Dep’t of Corr. v. Freedom of Info. Comm’n, 2020 Conn. Super. LEXIS 1004 (Tax & … Continue reading
D.N.H.: State liquor agents’ entry into public areas of licensee was reasonable as under administrative authority
NH state liquor agents didn’t violate the Fourth Amendment by entering public space of a regulated establishment to issue verbal warnings. The state supreme court has already held that liquor licensees were highly regulated businesses. E. Coast Serv. Indus. Co. … Continue reading
An EPA subpoena to determine whether this mine could pay for the cost of a cleanup was within the agency’s jurisdiction and valid and did not violate the Fourth Amendment. United States v. United Park City Mines Co., 2020 U.S. … Continue reading
A stop of a regulated truck for a regulatory inspection by an nonregulatory officer was unreasonable under the administrative search doctrine. Otherwise, it upends the Burger scheme. United States v. Feliciana, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 28881 (4th Cir. Sept. 11, … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s second amended complaint didn’t state a City of Los Angeles v. Patel claim. “The SAC’s allegation that the Motel’s registration records were searched pursuant to a CUP condition that was imposed by a vote of the City Council provides … Continue reading
An administrative inspection warrant is based on a programmatic probable cause standard, and not probable cause to believe that a crime occurred. Using the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Office to help do a City of Lancaster administrative entry and search … Continue reading
CA1: Drunk underage partiers puking outside and going back in justified a community caretaking entry to see if anyone was in distress
Drunk underage partiers puking outside and going back in justified a community caretaking entry to see if anyone was in distress. Castagna v. Jean, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 11357 (1st Cir. Apr. 10, 2020). The use of an administrative warrant … Continue reading
Criminal history checks are reasonable under any traffic stop because they negligibly extend the stop. This court held that en banc in 2001 in a case relied upon in Rodriguez. Other circuits are in accord. United States v. Mayville, 2020 … Continue reading