October 2022 S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
- OH10: Window tint violation justified impoundment and inventory, even though discretionary
- NY2: Franks claim has to be fully developed; it’s more than just a false statement
- DC: Gant search incident for open containers did not permit search of a small plastic box
- CA11: Questions about travel plans were not an unreasonable extension of a traffic stop
- SC: Request for consent with “do you mind” met with “I do but …” not voluntary. Also no RS for continuing stop.
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Reasonableness
S.D.N.Y.: Two years to search a password protected computer, and more after mistrial, was not unreasonable
The government got a search warrant for defendant’s computer in days, but it took two years to complete the forensic review because of password protection. The two-year delay was thus not unreasonable. After a mistrial, the government kept searching, and … Continue reading
EFF sued for access to search warrant materials that led to use of cell site simulators. The court finds that the protection of named CIs in the papers still needs to be protected, and they remain under seal. Electronic Frontier … Continue reading
Rental car location tracking is significantly different from CSLI. It is purely third-party information. Moreover, the rental car company consented to the taking of the information. United States v. Brown, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166119 (E.D.N.Y. Sept. 14, 2022). The … Continue reading
Maryland trial judges have statewide jurisdiction for search warrants. Thus, the assignment of judges in Baltimore by the Chief Judge of the state high court violated nothing under the Fourth Amendment. (Without citing Virginia v. Moore. And, even if it … Continue reading
The taking of a blood sample by a nurse at a hospital is not a Fourth Amendment search. State v. Ragalis, 2022 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2025 (New Britain Sept. 8, 2022). Custody under Miranda is not the same as a … Continue reading
It is not a violation of the Fourth Amendment to tell the defendant to keep his hands visible and not reach in the car during a stop. If a person can be ordered out of the car for officer safety, … Continue reading
Prolonging the traffic stop for further information on defendant’s parole and probation status was unreasonable. It diverted from the traffic stop. United States v. Gould, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 142915 (N.D. Cal. Aug. 10, 2022). The protective sweep of defendant’s … Continue reading
Defendant officers’ motion for summary judgment on qualified immunity for violating the knock-and-announce rule is denied. The law is well settled for 25 years and there are no blanket exceptions. The rest is fact bound. Murphy v. Grochowski, 2022 U.S. … Continue reading
“[W]e conclude that although this was an isolated event and the evidence sought was easily removable, the passage of six days was not significant enough to render the warrant stale.” State v. Euchner, 2022 Iowa App. LEXIS 590 (Aug. 3, … Continue reading
Defendant and another person in cars from opposite directions stopped on a road with no other cars to chat [as in: police do that all the time, usually off the road, like at the EV charging station near my house]. … Continue reading
Even if the officer arrests plaintiff outside the jurisdiction, state law is irrelevant under the Fourth Amendment. The search incident to the arrest was valid. Frey v. Town of Jackson, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 20652 (10th Cir. July 26, 2022). … Continue reading
CA7: The question is not whether def committed a traffic violation, it’s whether the officer reasonably believed he did
“‘[T]he question … is whether [the officer] reasonably believed that he saw a traffic violation, not whether [the defendant] actually violated the [law].’ Cole, 21 F.4th at 428.” United States v. Yang, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 19125 (7th Cir. July … Continue reading
Asking motorist whether he is armed relates to officer safety, and it is reasonable during a stop. United States v. Racer, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 18664 (4th Cir. July 7, 2022). Dog sniff outside an apartment door didn’t violate any … Continue reading
The officer unreasonably prolonged the stop for the arrival of the drug dog. While subjective intentions aren’t determinative under Whren, here the officer called for the drug dog before the stop even happened. People v. Ayon, 2022 Cal. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
“An officer’s reasonable mistake of law—that is, when ‘the law turns out to be not what was thought’—can justify probable cause. [Heien] at 61-64. The officer ‘deserve[s] a margin of error’ when ‘the application of a statute is unclear—however clear … Continue reading
“[O]fficers were entitled to search the car pursuant to the warrant because Defendant was stopped within the immediate vicinity of his residence.” United States v. Clayton, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 116345 (M.D. La. June 30, 2022).* During a traffic stop, … Continue reading
A subjective intent (Whren) argument not presented to the USMJ is rejected. Even if the court got to the merits, the exclusionary rule wouldn’t apply to an equal protection challenge. United States v. Lewis, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 115137 (S.D. … Continue reading
If the stop is too long for Rodriguez, the defense should at least attempt to show it. “Because there is nothing set forth in the facts alleged by both parties that shows Carter’s detention was lengthy or extended beyond the … Continue reading