- KS: Passenger had no standing in car he bought for girlfriend
- IA: Warrantless entry for misdemeanor charge unreasonable
- W.D.Ky.: Arrest warrant doesn’t require executing officer to check into PC for it
- N.D.Okla.: Where there is a SW for a vehicle, def’s automobile exception argument is moot
- D.Minn.: Automobile exception applied to RV with engine not on blocks; was capable of movement
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Excessive force
The statute of limitations for a false arrest case starts with release. Manuel v. City of Joliet, Ill. (Manuel II), 903 F.3d 667, 669 (7th Cir. 2018), on remand from Manuel v. City of Joliet, Ill., 137 S. Ct. 911 … Continue reading
CA9: It is clearly established that using “intermediate force” against a nonresisting arrestee is unreasonable
It was clearly established that using “intermediate force” against a nonresisting arrestee is unreasonable. “To be clear, we are generally loath to second-guess law enforcement officers’ actions in a dangerous situation by analyzing each act without looking at the entire … Continue reading
Plaintiff was tried and acquitted for murder. He sued under § 1983 after two years in custody alleging evidence for his trial was fabricated and exculpatory evidence was withheld. The district court denied qualified immunity, and the defendants appealed. Defendants … Continue reading
The smell of burnt marijuana coming from a car in California isn’t probable cause. Blakes v. Superior Court, 2021 Cal. App. LEXIS 1057 (3d Dist. Nov. 24, 2021) (published Dec. 16, 2021). Officers had probable cause for the automobile exception … Continue reading
The Eighth Circuit again holds that stopping innocent persons at gunpoint with almost any reason at all almost always results in qualified immunity for the officer. Irvin v. Richardson, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 37110 (8th Cir. Dec. 16, 2021):
The fact expert Fourth Amendment counsel would have charged the client $1,000-1,800 before SCOTUS isn’t binding on the district court for fee shifting. The local rate is what’s reasonable. Agudath Israel of America v. Hochul, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 233088 … Continue reading
“Issues of motive and intent are essentially irrelevant in [an excessive force] case. The test in an excessive force case is an objective one. Thus, ‘[a]n officer’s evil intentions will not make a Fourth Amendment violation out of an objectively … Continue reading
“[T]he facts supporting [the officer’s] belief that defendant committed a crime were not specific to defendant and related instead to defendant’s proximity to drug use by others.” “Because the totality of the circumstances here fail to demonstrate a probability that … Continue reading
Plaintiff states a Fourth Amendment claim that he was arrested and left outside in the snow in jeans and a t-shirt for more than 30 minutes. Bolin v. Prater, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 225777 (N.D.Ind. Nov. 23, 2021). Leaving drugs … Continue reading
“Plaintiff argues any COVID-19 testing requirement is subject to the reasonable suspicion standards under the Fourth Amendment. … However, the Proclamation does not contain or implicate a testing requirement. … Therefore, Plaintiff’s Fourth Amendment claim is without merit. Plaintiff has … Continue reading
Prolongation of detention after conviction is an Eighth Amendment claim, not Fourth Amendment. Trapani v. Annucci, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 223605 (N.D.N.Y. Nov. 19, 2021). Plaintiff’s claims that a TV she bought at Walmart is video spying on her and … Continue reading
As to probable cause: “The Fourth Amendment does not require an officer to be right, only to be reasonable.” Allen v. City of Ecorse, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 34348 (6th Cir. Nov. 18, 2021). Defendant’s guilty plea included a comprehensive … Continue reading
Sexual intercourse with a court transport officer stated an excessive force claim. Plaintiff raised a factual dispute that the sex wasn’t consensual because of his control over her and a threat he made after he found out she talked about … Continue reading
Defendant lacked standing to challenge the search of a parcel of drugs. “Even if Defendant could challenge the delay of delivering the Target Parcel, his argument fails. While ‘theoretically’ the ‘detention of mail could at some point become an unreasonable … Continue reading
The district court erred by granting the police officer summary judgment as to plaintiff’s excessive force claim under the Fourth Amendment. Accepting plaintiff’s account of the incident, the officer violated plaintiff’s clearly established rights when he shot him six times … Continue reading
The government moved for an order requiring defendant to submit to a buccal swab for DNA to include or exclude him from certain evidence in a homicide case. “Accordingly, the Court finds that, although a buccal swab of the cheek … Continue reading
CA4: Choking out and killing a mentally ill man who only vaguely threatened himself was excessive force
“This appeal arises from a tragic incident that led to the death of Joshua Lawhon, an unarmed mentally ill man. Invoking 42 U.S.C. § 1983 and Virginia state law, Lawhon’s mother, as administrator of his estate, brought this action against … Continue reading
Reason: SCOTUS Has Made It Practically Impossible To Sue a Rights-Violating Federal Officer by Damon Root (“Several recent Supreme Court decisions have made it practically impossible to sue a federal officer over alleged violations of constitutional rights. Now the Court … Continue reading
The petitioner doesn’t show that the civil investigative demand in a fraud case was unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment or that it could not reach accommodation with the government. In re Civil Investigative Demand No. 21mc24 WJ/SCY, 2021 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
NYTimes: How Police Justify Killing Drivers: The Vehicle Was a Weapon by Kim Barker, Steve Eder, David D. Kirkpatrick and Arya Sundaram (“A Times investigation into a common defense for shooting motorists found that some officers had put themselves in … Continue reading