- KS: Passenger had no standing in car he bought for girlfriend
- IA: Warrantless entry for misdemeanor charge unreasonable
- W.D.Ky.: Arrest warrant doesn’t require executing officer to check into PC for it
- N.D.Okla.: Where there is a SW for a vehicle, def’s automobile exception argument is moot
- D.Minn.: Automobile exception applied to RV with engine not on blocks; was capable of movement
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Waiver
Defendant originally moved to suppress a search which included a video. Then he decided he needed it at trial, so it was waived. United States v. Savage, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 250209 (E.D.Okla. Nov. 19, 2021) (see Treatise § 60.19, … Continue reading
A shooting incident at a Tucson motel four days earlier led police to stop defendant in a car involved seen on motel video. That was reasonable suspicion. United States v. Castro, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 249438 (D.Ariz. Dec. 13, 2021).* … Continue reading
The two officers involved in defendant’s stop and search of his person and car had somewhat different versions of what happened. Under either, the search of his person and car were both reasonable. Defendant had no DL which was an … Continue reading
After a motion to suppress was filed and briefed and the government responded, new issues in the reply brief are usually treated as waived. Here, however, the court will let him proceed on those issues and he can file a … Continue reading
E.D.Mich.: When SW arrived for house, def’s vehicle parked two doors down could be searched with PC under automobile exception
Officers had a search warrant for defendant’s house that included vehicles that were parked or came there. Defendant’s vehicle was parked two houses down from his house. The search of the vehicle was justified by the automobile exception. United States … Continue reading
As to probable cause: “The Fourth Amendment does not require an officer to be right, only to be reasonable.” Allen v. City of Ecorse, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 34348 (6th Cir. Nov. 18, 2021). Defendant’s guilty plea included a comprehensive … Continue reading
An employment dispute devolved into plaintiff’s arrest for theft of email and a claim of official misconduct. She was acquitted and sued. “Unlike the Appellants in Black or Gallo, Lentz did not experience any significant pretrial restrictions such as extensive … Continue reading
A laptop computer left in the former marital home for a decade is abandoned property. United States v. Hartley, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 212137 (E.D.Mich. Nov. 3, 2021). Petitioner seeks to bring five claims in a successor habeas petition, and … Continue reading
“Plaintiffs forfeited their Fourth Amendment qualified immunity arguments because the opening brief makes no legal argument that qualified immunity does not apply, nor is such an argument apparent from Plaintiffs’ factual recitation.” Ramirez v. Zimmerman, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32726 … Continue reading
Assuming without deciding that removal of a cell phone’s SIM card is a search, it wasn’t unreasonable to merely obtain defendant’s telephone number off it to direct a search warrant to the phone. Defendant also complains of the protective sweep … Continue reading
Defendant’s merely talking to an alleged shooter before his interaction with the police was not reasonable suspicion he was armed and dangerous. “The totality of the circumstances here does not support a reasonable suspicion that Defendant was armed and dangerous … Continue reading
A retired LEO experienced in drug cases who was now a civilian employee of the department could here be included within the collective knowledge doctrine. United States v. McCoy, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 30364 (9th Cir. Oct. 12, 2021). Probable … Continue reading
OH9: ‘A determination that reasonable suspicion exists, however, need not rule out the possibility of innocent conduct. Terry accepts the risk that officers may stop innocent people.’”
“‘A determination that reasonable suspicion exists, however, need not rule out the possibility of innocent conduct. Terry accepts the risk that officers may stop innocent people.’” State v. Kleintop, 2021-Ohio-3584, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 3493 (9th Dist. Oct. 6, 2021). … Continue reading
Two officers in two cars pulled up on defendant walking down the street with another known druggy. The officers and defendant knew each other because they’d arrested him before. The trial court did not err in finding this was a … Continue reading
The delay between the search and the seizure of defendant’s cell phones seized on his arrest was 101 days long, but, compared to the reduced privacy interest in the phone because of evidentiary value, it was not constitutionally unreasonable. United … Continue reading
The three defendants filed untimely motions to suppress under the scheduling order; two were in the days before the trial and the third was during the trial. They were fact intensive and would have required a hearing. “Even on appeal, … Continue reading
The trial court invited the state to brief reasonable suspicion for the stop, but it instead relied exclusively on the community caretaking function. It argued below that reasonable suspicion developed after the stop. On appeal, it argued reasonable suspicion justified … Continue reading
NC: Calling for drug dog right away here didn’t extend time, but the sniff became reasonable by RS otherwise developing
The officer here preemptively called for a drug dog before running the DL information on the occupants. That did not measurably extend the time. After calling for the dog, the officer found out there were warrants on one, and then … Continue reading
Defendant was seen in his car looking at child pornography on his cell phone. That gave the police probable cause to enter to seize the phone. They later got a search warrant for it. State v. Palacio-Gregorio, 2021 Ga. App. … Continue reading