- WaPo: Opinion: Breonna Taylor’s death sparked remarkable changes to no-knock raids across America
- CA6: One controlled buy from a house is PC for SW
- NY: Failure to swear to facts of standing dooms motion to suppress
- NY dissent: NY’s pre-Rodriguez cases are suspect
- D.Kan.: Def had a loaner car loaned by a person with no authority over it; no standing
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Independent source
CA7: Govt illegally entered def’s house but they had plenty of PC and were going to get a warrant; thus, independent source saves the illegal search
“All agree: the DEA entry team entered Huskisson’s house unlawfully. We do not condone this illegal behavior by law enforcement; the better practice is to obtain a warrant before entering a home. Ordinarily, the evidence found here would be excluded. … Continue reading
CA7: Def’s texting photos of a firearm to others that police saw was an independent source for the search
Defendant had texted a copy of a photograph of his AK-47 on his cell phone to another, and the police saw it. That gave cause and an independent source to search the phone for it. “We agree with the district … Continue reading
Police entered defendant’s house to secure it after sending one officer to get a search warrant. The entry didn’t require suppression of evidence because there was an independent source for the information in the search warrant application. United States v. … Continue reading
N.D.Ill.: Officer’s embellishments of drugs involved told to others didn’t undermine the real PC that existed to stop def
Defendant’s conversations were picked up on a wiretap and concerned his marijuana dealing and being a felon in possession of a firearm. Despite officer embellishments in other types of drugs defendant was involved in shared with other officers (heroin, etc.), … Continue reading
CA11: When information in a SW affidavit comes from an illegal source, it is purged; here, PC remains
Excising that which was allegedly illegally obtained from the affidavit for this search warrant, probable cause still remains. United States v. Fleur, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS 4899 (11th Cir. Feb. 20, 2019). There was no independent probable cause for the … Continue reading
D.Neb.: Initial entry into hotel room was unlawful, but affidavit for SW showed PC before that happened, and SW not suppressed
Even though the officer’s entry into the hotel room was unlawful, the officer had probable cause before that. So, even ignoring the observations in the room, the warrant will not be suppressed. United States v. Sandoval, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s claim that a search warrant for his house was retaliatory for First Amendment activities doesn’t overcome the fact there was independent probable cause for the warrant. Therefore, the Fourth Amendment claim fails. Fredin v. Clysdale, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
Defendant appeals his sexual assault conviction. His victim came to his house to bum a cigarette, and she stayed to drink with defendant and his girlfriend. She fell asleep and awoke in the morning, fully clothed, with defendant’s girlfriend yelling … Continue reading
CA6: Dist.Ct.’s findings don’t support inevitable discovery, so court applies independent source instead
The district court’s analysis doesn’t support application of the inevitable discovery exception because the court didn’t make sufficient findings on the second part of the test. Instead, the record fully supports the independent source doctrine instead. United States v. Chapman-Sexton, … Continue reading
M.D.Fla.: Def was given guest standing to challenge a knock-and-talk that both sides agree was unreasonable
The knock-and-talk turned into a full scale raid, and the parties agree it was unreasonable. The R&R is rejected that defendant didn’t have standing. “The Court finds that defendant has standing to challenge the police conduct in and near the … Continue reading
First search warrant probably violated the Fourth Amendment, but another was sought that omitted everything about the first search warrant, including what was found. The second was valid, and the good faith exception applied. United States v. Eggerson, 2018 U.S. … Continue reading
DE: State const’l claim Caballes should be rejected would not be considered on mere plain error review
Defendant for the first time on appeal raised a state constitutional argument that Caballes on dog sniffs as searched should be rejected. The court declines to go there on plain error review. Bradley v. State, 2018 Del. LEXIS 477 (Oct. … Continue reading
Defendant was convicted of 42 counts of housing code violations of a house in constant disrepair since 2002. As a condition of probation, he was ordered to permit home inspections, and this was reasonably related to the offense of conviction. … Continue reading
Probable cause was shown for a search warrant for a cell phone for taking video of defendant’s daughters changing clothes under a door. The independent source doctrine permitted police to get a second search warrant for the phone after the … Continue reading
CA10: You can’t tell the court it needs to apply the independent source case law a certain way and then complain on appeal that it did what you asked
This case started with hotel housekeeping coming in to clean a room and seeing obvious drug paraphernalia. The police were called, and they were shown. A search warrant was prepared showing probable cause to connect defendants to the room by … Continue reading
The independent source doctrine applies to officers’ aerial surveillance alone. If the officers had only mentioned their aerial surveillance seeing marijuana plants, that alone was probable cause. “The district court credited the agents’ testimony that they would have sought a … Continue reading
Defendant’s cell phone was first the subject of a private search, and then a police search. The police search exceeded the scope of the private search, and that led to a state issued search warrant. The state search warrant was … Continue reading