- D.Minn.: No right to being stopped at earliest time
- NYTimes: Calling Your Lawyer’s Cell From Jail? What You Say Can and Will Be Used Against You.
- OR: Def adequately pled 4A and argued substance to preserve issue for appeal
- W.D.Wash.: Motel 6’s own policy of giving ICE & DHS its customer names doesn’t bring it within Patel
- KOAT-Albuquerque: Border patrol agent stops two people after they spoke Spanish in Montana
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Independent source
W.D.Mo.: Motel room was illegally entered, but it was to preserve the scene not search it, so independent source applied to SW
“In this case, the evidence shows that the officers illegally entered the motel room. However, they only secured the room and did not conduct a search until they had a search warrant. The undisputed evidence shows that the warrant was … Continue reading
“[T]he district court did not err in denying Hernandez’s motion to suppress the evidence obtained from the Samsung T199 phone because the search pursuant to the warrant was ‘genuinely independent’ of the initial search. Murray, 487 U.S. at 542.” United … Continue reading
IN: Officer safety concerns not shown for search of juvenile’s back pack for asking to borrow cell phone
The juvenile in this case was in a Kroger parking lot late one Sunday morning asking to use cell phones. The police were called, and he was found with two backpacks and the police suspected he was a runaway. A … Continue reading
N.D.Cal.: Defs can’t show taint from alleged illegal bugs and all that was acquired afterward in this wide-ranging investigation
There were stationary bugs that recorded conversations, and the government has declined to use them at trial after much litigation. Still, there is “a heap of incriminating evidence” derived from all kinds of sources, and the court won’t suppress all … Continue reading
Police were called to defendant’s home in a domestic call that he was holding his wife and her child against their will. They entered and handcuffed him. A patdown of his person produced ammunition. Officers looked in a stack of … Continue reading
CO: Prior illegal third party consent search of GPS in car unbeknownst to def wasn’t law of the case barring subsequent SW on independent evidence
Defendant was arrested for a sex offense, and, while in jail, his landlord kicked him out and his car was towed away and impounded by the police. The police used the towing company’s consent to search the GPS in his … Continue reading
Even though the government conducted an illegal warrantless search of defendant’s cell phone, they later obtained a search warrant based on previously acquired information, so the independent source doctrine applies. United States v. Keel, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 58895 (N.D. … Continue reading
W.D.Ark.: Govt had independent source for cracking password on Android phone by software so def’s suppressed confession doesn’t suppress phone
While defendant’s confession was suppressed, his passwords to his phone were not because it was an Android phone, and the government could get in to an Android phone with its software. Thus, there was an independent source. United States v. … Continue reading
S.D.Ohio: Officers had good reason to know CP on flash drive before looking; SW was based on independent source
Defendant’s house was broken into by neighbors, and they stole things, including a flash drive which defendant had admitted to them in the past had child pornography on it. The police got the flash drive from the neighbor and looked … Continue reading
A top to bottom search of plaintiff’s home by the D.C. bomb squad hours into a “situation” at his home (actually based on a mistake) wasn’t remotely justified by exigent circumstances. Moreover, qualified immunity doesn’t apply (2-1 on this issue) … Continue reading
N.D.Ill.: Mere possibility of destruction of evidence in a house under surveillance isn’t exigency; more required
Officers surveilled defendant’s house for several hours, and finally they entered. The mere possibility of destruction of evidence isn’t exigency. Here, however, other officers and an AUSA were in the process of working on a search warrant, and that had … Continue reading