- E.D.Wis.: Clerical error in attaching wrong SW to affidavit where there were more than one for def could be corrected
- D.N.J.: “The goal is a difficult one to achieve because Franks is narrow in its scope and miserly in the relief it offers.”
- OH11: Trial court’s order denying unsealing SW affidavit in post-conviction case wasn’t final and appealable
- D.Conn.: Despite delay in seeking SW for electronics, on balance, warrant shall issue
- NY4: No REP in a handgun placed under car bumper in driveway at sidewalk visible from off the property
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Collective knowledge
The collective knowledge doctrine applies to traffic stops. United States v. Murray, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 111040 (S.D. Ohio June 24, 2020). “Applying this [deferential] standard of review to the warrant application, the Court has reviewed the application and finds … Continue reading
The affidavit for the search warrant here was adequate to show nexus and probable cause for a search. The reliance on other officers’ information didn’t require this officer to independently corroborate it. United States v. Velazquez, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
The collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require every officer to know everything. Pueblo v. Jiméne, 2020 PR App. LEXIS 278 (P.R. App. Jan. 30, 2020). (That, of course, is evident from the word “collective.”). A year typo in the affidavit’s narrative … Continue reading
“‘[W]e impute collective knowledge among multiple law enforcement agencies, even when the evidence demonstrates that the responding officer was wholly unaware’ of the specific relevant facts. (Doc. 194, at 24 (quoting United States v. Lyons, 687 F.3d 754, 766 (6th … Continue reading
Plaintiff was arrested for possession of cocaine and obstructing justice when he allegedly swallowed the baggie of drugs. He was taken to a hospital and drank charcoal and other liquids to pass it and he was x-rayed. Nothing was recovered. … Continue reading
Three officers were involved in defendant’s stop. Two were involved in the decision to stop, but, based on the factual dispute in the record, they do not get qualified immunity on the decision to make the stop. The third officer, … Continue reading
OH12: Probation and its search condition doesn’t end with probationer’s arrest; house could be searched later
Defendant’s girlfriend was on probation, and she thus “consented” in advance to searches. She confessed during a probation visit that she used drugs, and they arrested her and then searched her and defendant’s place based on her probation search condition. … Continue reading
Defendant’s cell phones were already in the possession of the police, and the search warrant was deemed by its own language as executed on issuance. The actual search, however, took 30 days, and that wasn’t unreasonable. People v. Ruffin, 2019 … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require that the officers actually share the information
The collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require that the officers actually share the information. United States v. Devaugh, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 196059 (D.D.C. Nov. 12, 2019). The use of a “court ordered subpoena” apparently not issued on probable cause was … Continue reading
Defendant’s alleged mistreatment during the execution of the search warrant, which was only vaguely described in the opinion, even if provable, wouldn’t overcome the overwhelming proof of guilt. Here it was raised as an IAC claim. United States v. Puente, … Continue reading
“Second, as to Mr. Ramos-Castillo’s argument that Agent Godier omitted material information by failing to include law enforcement’s numerous promises to Mr. Salazar, the Court finds that the failure to explicitly include this information does not amount to material omission … Continue reading
“A group of masked City of Detroit police officers broke down plaintiff Katrina McGrew’s door, threw her to the ground, and handcuffed her so tightly it left bruises. When she complained about how constricting the handcuffs were, the officers threatened … Continue reading
Officers had unusual facts during their stop of defendant that supported reasonable suspicion the vehicle might be stolen. Even a computer check didn’t completely dispel reasonable suspicion, so brief continuation of the stop was proper. United States v. Wallace, 2019 … Continue reading
Collective knowledge of police officers can provide the reasonable suspicion necessary for an officer to prolong a stop in accord with Rodriguez. Hall v. State, 2019 Ga. App. LEXIS 477 (Aug. 23, 2019). There was probable cause for plaintiff’s arrest, … Continue reading
The trial court misapplied the collective knowledge doctrine and held that the state failed to show reasonable suspicion without testimony from every officer involved. There was, in fact, reasonable suspicion for defendant’s stop. Officers followed a vehicle from the home … Continue reading
N.D.Ill.: Officer’s embellishments of drugs involved told to others didn’t undermine the real PC that existed to stop def
Defendant’s conversations were picked up on a wiretap and concerned his marijuana dealing and being a felon in possession of a firearm. Despite officer embellishments in other types of drugs defendant was involved in shared with other officers (heroin, etc.), … Continue reading