- W.D.Mo.: ER’s security staff conducts private searches of GSW victims
- IA: Trespassing on RR property was RS for stop
- CA9: Going directly into pockets exceeded frisk power
- CA6: Excessive force “assault” claim under § 1983 doesn’t necessarily require contact
- N.D.Ga.: PC shown for cell phone and geo-location data
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. about 30,000 posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Category Archives: Abandonment
The officer’s complying with the Fourth Amendment in the stop and arrest is not an element of defendant’s crime [or any crime]. State v. Chivalan, 2021 Iowa App. LEXIS 381 (Apr. 28, 2021) [one can, in some cases, get an … Continue reading
“First, the court did not clearly err in finding that Gage had abandoned any reasonable expectation of privacy in the backpack by telling Officer Robinson that the group had just retrieved the backpack from a garbage dump and that he … Continue reading
Defendant’s motion to unseal the affidavit for the search warrant is denied because of an ongoing investigation it would reveal and because he can’t show a lack of probable cause for the search. United States v. Calleta, 2021 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
OH5: Def didn’t abandon cell phone but it was still reasonable for officer to turn it on to see if he could ID owner
Defendant did not abandon his cell phone by leaving it charging in a vehicle (actually, it had fallen out but the charging cable was attached) where he was away from it. However, the officer reasonably could turn on the phone … Continue reading
A search of a pain management doctor’s Arizona residence was based on nexus to his Wyoming medical practice. The government showed that patient records were in both places. United States v. Khan, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 5611 (10th Cir. Feb. … Continue reading
Defendant didn’t file a declaration under penalty of perjury contesting the facts alleged in his criminal complaint. He also fails to show even a subjective reasonable expectation of privacy in the place searched to give him standing. He abandoned his … Continue reading
Defendant could be detained during the search of his house under a warrant. When he got up off the floor, there was a key fob underneath him, and he denied it was his. The officers used the panic button to … Continue reading
D.C.Cir.: IAC claim presented first in court of appeals decided without remand; claim fails on its face
Defendant raised his ineffective assistance claim first in the Court of Appeals. Usually, the court says it would remand for an evidentiary hearing. Here, however, his allegation is facially insufficient and the issue is decided without a remand. The challenge … Continue reading
Defendant left his suitcase in an open grassy area, and that was a waiver any reasonable expectation of privacy in it. See United States v. Wilson, 984 F. Supp. 2d 676 (E.D. Ky. 2013) (leaving suitcase in a cemetery was … Continue reading
D.Mass.: Def accidentally lost his fanny pack in flight; court finds abandonment even though he didn’t intend it
The court finds defendant abandoned his fanny pack which he said was strapped over his chest and fell off during flight from the police. He testified he didn’t intentionally drop the fanny pack, and it must have slipped off while … Continue reading
Dissent on denial of a petition for discretionary review: The court should decide whether fleeing a car and leaving one’s cell phone behind is abandonment. The court of appeals below held it was. Wiltz v. State, 595 S.W.3d 930, 936 … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Search of def’s fanny pack wasn’t valid as search incident, but it was valid because he disclaimed it
Defendant’s front license plate being on the dashboard and not affixed to the car was a traffic offense that justified his stop. “Perhaps Giles recognizes that there was probable cause to arrest him after he refused to pull over and … Continue reading
Defendant’s CSLI claim can’t be brought as a successor habeas petition. Carpenter isn’t retroactive. In re Witherspoon, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 29717 (11th Cir. Sept. 17, 2020). Defendant was in a stolen vehicle and had a backpack in it while … Continue reading
Law360: Discarded Phone Rulings Misapply 4th Amendment Case Law
W.D.Mo.: That later police reports would shed more light on affidavit for SW, that’s not a Franks issue
Affidavits for search warrants are presumed to be accurate under Franks, and that’s why the defense has to make a substantial preliminary showing of falsity. Alleging merely that other more timely reports would shed light on the subject is not … Continue reading
Defendant had standing to challenge the stop and search of a car he’d borrowed with permission of the owner despite the lack of a driver’s license, but he loses on the merits. United States v. Zimmerman, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS … Continue reading
Government waives abandonment by not pleading it in the district court. United States v. Ross, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 21028 (11th Cir. July 7, 2020), on remand from United States v. Ross, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 19642 (11th Cir. June … Continue reading
OR: Disclaiming ownership of purse brought to police station police wanted to search wasn’t abandonment
Where defendant was told to bring her purse and later disclaimed ownership when the officer wanted to search it, she did not abandon it to the degree she lost ownership or a reasonable expectation of privacy in it. It wasn’t … Continue reading
Defendant fled from the police and wrecked his car and nearly totaled it, leaving it where it wrecked and running away. He sought to distinguish a state case from 1980 that predated Oregon’s expansion under the state constitution, but the … Continue reading
Fox5NY: DNA from coronavirus face mask leads to arrest in child molestation case, police say by Kelly Taylor Hayes (“A face mask used amid the coronavirus pandemic helped police in California arrest a man suspected in a child molestation case … Continue reading