- HI: Miranda warnings required whenever PC developes for arrest
- WA: Stop to inquire of paying transit fare violated state constitution
- OH1: Defense counsel ineffective for not challenging state’s alleged consent after they announced “we’re going to be doing a search warrant here”
- CA10: Five seconds is de minimus under Rodriguez
- Reason: An Oregon Man Was Wrongly Imprisoned for Almost a Year Because of an Error in a DMV Database
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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
Search and seizure law consultant
Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact: forhall @ aol.com / The Book
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Immigration arrests
D.C.Cir.: Bivens not extended to immigration detention
Bivens should not be extended to an immigration detention. K.O. v. Sessions, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 20984 (D.C. Cir. July 29, 2022). Plaintiff filed a § 1983 case against his prosecution which fails on Younger grounds. As to an illegal … Continue reading
CA3: Def’s immigration detention was not an egregious 4A violation
Defendant was involved in an immigration stop where officers were looking for another person allegedly illegally reentering. After finding he was not the person they were looking for, they tried to confirm his identity, and the detention might have been … Continue reading
D.D.C.: New 4A issues in reply brief are normally waived
After a motion to suppress was filed and briefed and the government responded, new issues in the reply brief are usually treated as waived. Here, however, the court will let him proceed on those issues and he can file a … Continue reading
IN: There is no immigration exception to the 4A
There is no immigration exception to the Fourth Amendment. The City can conclude that immigration administrative detainers violate the Fourth Amendment. City of Gary v. Nicholson, 2021 Ind. App. LEXIS 381 (Dec. 10, 2021):
LA5: Chain of custody issue after search isn’t a motion to suppress issue
A chain of custody dispute from a search isn’t proper in a motion to suppress. That’s a trial issue. State v. Mackey, 2021 La. App. LEXIS 1068 (La. App. 5 Cir. July 12, 2021). “Plaintiff Sally Gaetjens sued various local … Continue reading
W.D.Mo.: Shooting victim or suspect? Officers couldn’t tell and that was reasonable suspicion.
Shooting victim or suspect? Officers couldn’t tell and that was reasonable suspicion. “Here, the officers knew that two black males were shooting firearms, and Defendant and Jackson were two black males who had been involved in the shooting. While the … Continue reading
CA5: RS for immigration stop was based on location and officer’s experience
“The Government argues, and we agree, that the totality of the circumstances here support a finding that Agent Stauffiger had reasonable suspicion to justify stopping Nelson’s vehicle. First, our Court has recognized that proximity to the border is ‘a paramount … Continue reading
CA5 declines to extend Bivens to 4A claims outside the home
Court declines to extend Bivens to a search in parking lot because it thinks SCOTUS would agree. Bivens was a search of the home. Byrd v. Lamb, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 6844 (5th Cir. Mar. 9, 2021). “Henriquez-Perez has not … Continue reading
OH11: Driver being passed out behind the steering wheel with the engine running is RS
The driver being passed out behind the steering wheel with the engine running and radio playing is reasonable suspicion. State v. Cassel, 2021-Ohio-661, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 654 (11th Dist. Mar. 8, 2021).* Defendant’s stop was justified by a traffic … Continue reading
CA9: ICE warrant authorized knocking at appellant’s door, and co-occupant consented to entry
ICE officers could approach appellant’s door under Jardines with an immigration arrest warrant even though it is not a judicial warrant. “The immigration warrant licensed the officers to solicit consent to entry for the limited purpose of enforcing the civil … Continue reading
CA9: When the 4A question isn’t settled, the alleged 4A violation can’t be egregious in immigration cases
“In immigration proceedings, the exclusionary rule applies to evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment only when the violation is egregious. … Petitioners bear the burden of making a prima facie showing of an egregious Fourth Amendment violation. … … Continue reading
NBC Los Angeles: LA Man Seized for ‘Latino Appearance’ Will Not be Deported
NBC Los Angeles: LA Man Seized for ‘Latino Appearance’ Will Not be Deported (“He was arrested and spent more than two months in a detention facility before getting a bond hearing, according to the ACLU.”)
CA9: Gerstein applies to immigration arrests
Gerstein applies to immigration arrests in this class action. Plaintiff was a U.S. citizen detained by ICE. Gonzalez v. U.S. Immigration & Customs Enforcement, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 28827 (9th Cir. Sept. 11, 2020). There was probable cause for a … Continue reading
CA9: It was well established that “illegal presence” in the U.S. was not a crime, so ptf’s arrest was unreasonable
Illegal entry is a crime, but not mere presence, and that was well established since 2012. Defendant’s arrest of plaintiff in a courtroom as a witness on suspicion of being here illegally at the request of a JP was unreasonable. … Continue reading
CA9 applies QI standard to “egregious violations” of 4A for ICE entries
ICE entry onto appellant’s curtilage to arrest him was not an egregious violation of the Fourth Amendment, the court applying qualified immunity language to show it wasn’t. “At the time of the entry, no binding authority held that an officer’s … Continue reading
Courthouse News Service: Judge Declares Courthouse Immigration Arrests Illegal in New York
Courthouse News Service: Judge Declares Courthouse Immigration Arrests Illegal in New York by Adam Klasfeld:
MT: State’s acting on nonbinding immigration detainer is an arrest subject to 4A and state law
An immigration detainer is not a demand to a state law enforcement officer to make a civil arrest, but, if a state law enforcement officer acts on it, it is a new arrest. It is ripe for judicial review because, … Continue reading
San Diego Union-Tribune: An end to immigration checks on Greyhound buses reaffirms Fourth Amendment argument from civil rights groups
San Diego Union-Tribune: An end to immigration checks on Greyhound buses reaffirms Fourth Amendment argument from civil rights groups by Lisa Deaderick (“In Greyhound’s recent decision to no longer allow Border Patrol immigration checks on its buses, civil rights groups say … Continue reading
WaPo: ICE runs facial-recognition searches on millions of Md. drivers, alarming immigration and privacy activists
WaPo: ICE runs facial-recognition searches on millions of Md. drivers, alarming immigration and privacy activists by Drew Harwell and Erin Cox (“Maryland defied federal guidelines in 2013 when it created driver’s licenses for undocumented immigrants. But in recent years, Immigration … Continue reading