- TX1: Voluntariness of consent shown by officers’ efforts to insure def understood what they were asking
- WA: Request for proof of payment of a bus fare is not a search
- S.D.Fla.: PC for constructive possession shown; def doesn’t have to handle firearm in video
- E.D.Tenn.: You post to Facebook at your peril; there is no REP in Facebook “friends”
- N.D.Okla.: Motion to suppress must allege basis to overcome GFE, too
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Seizure
There was probable cause for defendant’s arrest away from the place of execution of the search warrant (Summers and Bailey). United States v. Pelayo, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 126671 (W.D. Wash. July 7, 2021). When defendant opened his door, the … Continue reading
Defendant was a suspect in a diamond theft. Police obtained a search warrant for his cell phone location records and that placed him near the burglary at the time it happened, and there was probable cause for it. The search … Continue reading
CA7: When false arrest is the claim, ptf’s bond conditions are not separate seizures for SoL purposes
Plaintiff’s false evidence claim arises from the arrest or release from detention, and here it is time barred. His release on detention was not a separate Fourth Amendment seizure. Smith v. City of Chi., 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 19136 (7th … Continue reading
“Inasmuch as Mr. Mitchem was unaware that his car was blocked given his somnambulant state, the mere blocking of his vehicle is of no Fourth Amendment consequence.” United States v. Mitchem, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 118388 (S.D. W.Va. June 25, … Continue reading
Officers obtained a search warrant for defendant possessing child pornography based on his interest in unclothed children and taking pictures. The district court suppressed, but the good faith exception applies to save the search. The government appealed on both probable … Continue reading
Kik’s duty to report child pornography on its platform under 18 U.S.C. § 2258A doesn’t make its search still not a private search. United States v. Hart, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 111166 (M.D. Pa. June 14, 2021). The trial court … Continue reading
Allegation of a sexual assault by a school official states a Fourth Amendment claim. Hermann v. Kirkwood R-7 Sch. Dist., 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 102574 (E.D. Mo. June 1, 2021). Officers with a search warrant for electronic devices could look … Continue reading
Defendant wasn’t seized just by the officer pointing a gun at him; it was when he raised his hands and submitted. “Here, because the officers were responding to a call about an individual with a firearm and Officer Davis reasonably … Continue reading
S.D.Ind.: Parole-probation searches are governed by 4A reasonableness but shaped by state law limiting them
The probation or parole search law and reasonableness is a Fourth Amendment question but it’s shaped by state law on how those searches are permitted as a condition of release. This one was reasonable. United States v. Beechler, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading
Officer’s certain knowledge of a syringe in defendant’s pocket defendant lied about after a consensual patdown for weapons justified a search incident. The officer sought a patdown because of his nervousness. State v. Budka, 2021 Ida. App. LEXIS 20 (May … Continue reading
Officers pointing their sidearms at a group of men wasn’t necessarily a seizure. At any rate, it was with reasonable suspicion. “Despite Williams’ argument to the contrary …, the officers’ display of their guns, without any physical contact, did not … Continue reading
Once a building is legally condemned, a separate search warrant isn’t required to tear it down. It is then a reasonable seizure. Keene Grp., Inc. v. City of Cincinnati, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 15074 (6th Cir. May 20, 2021):
“The Geo-Location Warrant was supported by probable cause because the affidavit established ‘a connection between the defendant and the location to be searched; a link between the location and criminal activity; and the informant’s veracity and basis of knowledge.’” There … Continue reading
WY: Where the stop exceeds its purpose and becomes unreasonable, the fact it’s de minimus doesn’t make it reasonable
Where the stop exceeded reasonableness, the district court’s finding it was de minimus was error. It was less than the time for the dog sniff, but the dog had time to arrive. Mahaffy v. State, 2021 Wyo. LEXIS 71 (May … Continue reading
Where firearms were lawfully seized, there isn’t a separate Fourth Amendment claim for failure to promptly return them. Bello v. Rockland Cty., 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 13281 (2d Cir. May 5, 2021). Probable cause is required for administrative subpoenas under … Continue reading
CA7: Pre-Carpenter real time CSLI tracking def on streets to locate him before he committed another robbery was not unreasonable
The fact officers had probable cause to arrest is considered in determining good faith. In addition, “To conclude, we hold that Detective Ghiringhelli did not conduct a Fourth Amendment ‘search’ by requesting the real-time CSLI of a suspect for multiple … Continue reading
“The issue in this case is whether a driver is “seized” within the meaning of the Fourth Amendment when he is tailed by a marked police cruiser down empty streets at 3 a.m., followed into an empty parking lot, and … Continue reading