- CA9: SW was wholesale overbroad, and QI not properly preserved for appeal
- PA: LPR systems don’t violate motorists REP
- D.Minn.: Failure to show nexus still saved by GFE because there’s always an inference
- D.Ariz.: No RS for stop, but def fled when tried to be pulled over and that was
- NBC News: Marion, Kansas, police chief suspended following series of raids
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“Life is not a matter of holding good cards, but of playing a poor hand well.”
–Josh Billings (pseudonym of Henry Wheeler Shaw), Josh Billings on Ice, and Other Things (1868) (erroneously attributed to Robert Louis Stevenson, among others)
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Seizure
Seizure of a syringe from defendant’s pocket in a Terry frisk was reasonable even though it could have been a pen. Other things, no. United States v. Endsley, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166997 (D. Alaska Sep. 20, 2023). Plaintiff sued … Continue reading
An after seizure alleged break in the chain of custody of DNA evidence taken is not a Fourth Amendment violation. Timothy C. v. Straughn, 2023 W. Va. LEXIS 339 (Sep. 15, 2023). Defendant’s LPN wasn’t visible until after the stop, … Continue reading
(1) The tracking device placed on defendant’s vehicle by court order was with probable cause. (2) “For a claim under the Maine Constitution to be deemed preserved for our review, however, the party advancing the claim cannot merely allude to … Continue reading
“In this appeal, we are asked to consider the narrow application of the automobile exception to the Fourth Amendment’s warrant requirement: whether officers may, in the course of a car search, search a container held roughly 25 feet away from … Continue reading
Police parking next to a defendant’s car is not a seizure. United States v. Gartrell, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 22719 (6th Cir. Aug. 28, 2023). Covid limitations on visitation at a small hospital wasn’t a Fourth Amendment violation, among other … Continue reading
“The Officers testified the smell of marijuana can remain in the area, or linger on clothing or other items, after marijuana is removed from the area, before or after it has been smoked. … It can also be difficult to … Continue reading
A “red screen” on the police car’s computer screen meant a serious warning about defendant’s LPN, and that justified the stop. State v. Cooper, 2023-Ohio-2897, 2023 Ohio App. LEXIS 2881 (5th Dist. Aug. 18, 2023).* Blocking both ends of an … Continue reading
Despite the criminal charges being dropped because city officers were outside their jurisdiction, the whole matter was reasonable under the Fourth Amendment because reasonableness doesn’t depend on state law violations. Kosiba v. Kleine, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 139379 (D. Neb. … Continue reading
A records preservation letter sent to cell phone providers was not a seizure, let alone an unreasonable one. The records were later secured by search warrant. United States v. Zwiefelhofer, 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 134679 (M.D. Fla. Aug. 2, 2023). … Continue reading
Army: Affidavit for SW didn’t show why text messages would still be on def’s cell phone; but harmless error
The government did not show in the affidavit for search authorization that text messages would logically be found on his cell phone corroborating a sex crime victim. Nevertheless, he wasn’t prejudiced by it. United States v. Geranen, 2023 CCA LEXIS … Continue reading
Defendant came in to the police for an interview about sex assault in the Army. As it developed, exigency for seizure of defendant’s cell phone arose. This was not a police created exigency which requires some wrongdoing on the part … Continue reading
Defendant’s wife was not acting as an agent of the state when she procured defendant’s cell phone which produced evidence of sexual exploitation of a child. “Four of our sister Courts of Appeals assess whether a private party was an … Continue reading
“Here, Officer Tejada initially approached Gamble and asked him a question: ‘Ain’t got no gun on you, man?’” ‘“Let me see your waistband’–amounted to a show of authority.” United States v. Gamble, 2023 U.S. App. LEXIS 19695 (D.C.Cir. Aug. 1, … Continue reading
Under Mimms, the occupants can be ordered out of the car during a stop. The fact the trial judge disagreed with the three rationales offered for it by the officer doesn’t matter. State v. Li, 2023 R.I. LEXIS 90 (July … Continue reading
D.Nev.: Request of internet provider to preserve evidence under 18 U.S.C. § 2703(f) is not a seizure
“Here, the Court finds that Omegle and TextNow’s preservation of evidence in response to the Government’s request under 18 U.S.C. § 2703(f)—a provision of the Stored Communications Act—did not violate the Fourth Amendment for two reasons. First, because the preservation … Continue reading
A dog alert on a car was probable cause for a search of it and containers, here a backpack. State v. Kumuhone, 2023-Ohio-2586, 2023 Ohio App. LEXIS 2554 (8th Dist. July 27, 2023). “The contemporaneous tip, the visual details that … Continue reading
CA6: Unintended target of a police shooting, another officer, has a 4A seizure and excessive force claim
One officer fired a gun at a suspect inside a dwelling, apparently without aiming, and hit another officer. That was still a Fourth Amendment seizure of the person of the officer despite being an unintended target. Kilnapp v. City of … Continue reading
At a state show cause hearing, plaintiff disavowed any possessory or property interest in two pit bulls, so he’s estopped from claiming it in a § 1983 case over the dogs. Crandall v. Newaygo Cty., 2023 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 104374 … Continue reading
CA10: Despite SW’s overbreadth, executing officers understood the crime under investigation; GFE applies
The warrant was previously held overbroad and the case was remanded to the district court for findings on the good faith exception. In this second appeal, the good faith exception applies. The officers understood the limits in the warrant to … Continue reading
Here there was a warrantless entry into the house for a gun. Defendant was in custody outside. The state had the burden on inevitable discovery and failed. “In the instant case, the state failed to point to any alternative lawful … Continue reading