- NYT: An American Citizen Is Released From Immigration Custody After Nearly a Month
- NYT: Barr Revives Encryption Debate, Calling on Tech Firms to Allow for Law Enforcement
- D.Ariz.: Affidavit of another didn’t show offer of proof for standing
- E.D.Mich.: Ptf’s guilty plea was collateral estoppel to his § 1983 search claim
- M.D.Fla.: When the automobile exception applies and def is in custody, a SW still isn’t required
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Nexus
D.Minn.: No nexus whatsoever between offense and evidence sought and place to be searched; therefore, no GFE
There was no nexus shown at all between the affidavit for the search warrant between the evidence sought and the place to be searched. The good faith exception doesn’t rescue the search here because the affidavit is, in fact, so … Continue reading
S.D.Tex.: SW for entire cell phone in auto burglary is suppressed as both without nexus and overbroad
An arrest warrant doesn’t give authority to search a cell phone with the arrest. After a search warrant was issued for the phone for the crime of auto burglary, there is no nexus to the crime, and the search warrant … Continue reading
PA: Officer safety was not presumed to be exigency where def did nothing to warrant fear he’d use a weapon by merely refusing consent and walking away
Exigency of officer safety did not permit officers to search defendant’s garage. They came without a search warrant to arrest a third person. Defendant denied anyone else was there, refused to consent to a search, and turned and walked away. … Continue reading
There was no substantial basis for a finding of probable cause for this search warrant. Not only were the credibility and reliability of the informant questionable, but the tip was overly broad and made no mention of defendant’s residence and … Continue reading
In a health care fraud case, the fact some mail within the scheme came to defendant’s home was nexus for the search warrant including the home. “All of the items identified in the indictment were tied to or related to … Continue reading
A recorded telephone call with the defendant allegedly discussing a murder supported probable cause to search his cell phone for evidence of the call. United States v. Worthy, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 56275 (D. Md. Apr. 2, 2019). Defendant was … Continue reading
The search warrant application didn’t show a nexus between the phone and the crime under investigation. State v. Reese, 2019 Del. Super. LEXIS 140 (Mar. 18, 2019):
In addition to specific facts, officers may state their experience that nexus in a cell phone can be found as to certain crimes, and courts should credit that if reasonable. United States v. Fogg, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 38498 (D. … Continue reading
S.D.W.Va.: Officers falsely swore def’s friend “lived or stayed there”; she visited after a small heroin deal, and there was no PC at all
Defendant was visited by a friend after an $80 heroin sale. There was no nexus to defendant’s house by the friend who’d only visited a few times over a long period of time. The police also falsely swore that she … Continue reading
“Similarly, in this case, Charles Williams was discovered with a large amount of narcotics immediately after leaving the Target Apartment. … This incident alone is enough to establish a nexus to the Apartment to justify a warrant to search the … Continue reading
The affidavit for a search warrant for a third person’s home where defendant spent a lot of time was deficient on showing nexus and defendant’s connection to it, but it otherwise showed probable cause. Actually, right after three controlled buys, … Continue reading