- D.Utah: Def lacked standing in an apt rented for him he knew was by identity theft
- GA: Guest had standing but he was subject to owner’s consenting
- MA: Def’s clothes can be seized and searched for trace evidence on arrest for murder
- N.D.Miss.: Use of a smartphone app to translate request for consent was mooted by valid Spanish consent form
- New Law Review Article: Cross-Enforcement of the Fourth Amendment by Orin Kerr
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Nexus
Trial court’s deciding to suppress based on an argument not made by defendant was error. Commonwealth v. Jones, 2018 PA Super 208, 2018 Pa. Super. LEXIS 815 (July 17, 2018). Defendant argues in post-conviction proceedings against the trial court’s ruling … Continue reading
TN: Seizure of a cell phone incident to arrest is provided for in Riley; search still requires warrant
Defendant’s cell phone was properly seized incident to his arrest, as contemplated by Riley. It was not searched until a search warrant was obtained. State v. Wade, 2018 Tenn. Crim. App. LEXIS 523 (July 13, 2018). The search warrant for … Continue reading
IN: Cell phones are a tool of the trade of drug dealers; a lot of information extracted from it doesn’t show SW was overbroad
There was nexus between defendant’s alleged crime of drug dealing and his cell phone since cell phones are a tool of drug dealers. The search warrant was not impermissibly overbroad. Although 1000 pages of information was extracted from the phone, … Continue reading
DE: PC and nexus to search def’s house came from his leaving to do a drug deal on a bicycle and then coming right back
There was probable cause and nexus to search defendant’s house because he left the house on a bicycle to conduct a drug delivery and returned. Spencer v. State, 2018 Del. LEXIS 296 (June 26, 2018). There was probable cause to … Continue reading
DE: A visitor’s car parked outside a house being raided wasn’t enough to search it; here, however, the keys were found next to heroin inside, and that was enough
Defendant’s vehicle was parked outside of a house where a search was going down. Merely being outside isn’t cause to search the car. Finding the keys next to heroin inside was because that provided nexus to the drugs in the … Continue reading
PA: Information from CI’s recording in the home not suppressible even though full conversation might be
Recordings made in defendant’s house were not relied upon in issuing the search warrant for his house, so they can’t be a basis of suppression under the wiretap statute. As a Fourth Amendment matter, under Hoffa, the recordings made inside … Continue reading
“Hot pursuit” into a home to seek an iPhone via the find phone application was unreasonable. Here, however, there was a private search by defendant’s brother, and the exclusionary rule doesn’t apply. State ex rel. J.A., 2018 N.J. LEXIS 713 … Continue reading
DE: Nexus applies to vehicles; no showing car was involved in drugs, and no automatic search of drug def’s car
There must be nexus to search a drug defendant’s car. There is no automatic right to search it without some indication the car was involved in drugs. State v. Valentin, 2018 Del. Super. LEXIS 236 (May 29, 2018):
WV: Search of def on the premises of a place searched by SW was unreasonable without a showing of his nexus; merely being there isn’t nexus
Search of defendant found on the premises of a search of another person’s property was unreasonable because there was no shown nexus to him and the crime under suspicion. Even the occupants of the property weren’t named in the search … Continue reading
The affidavit for the search warrant here failed to show nexus to defendant’s house under Sixth Circuit precedent. It was sufficient, however, for the good faith exception to apply because the affidavit was not so lacking in information that reliance … Continue reading
It is a reasonable inference that records of bank fraud would be found in defendant’s home because it is usually kept for many years. The officer stated this in the affidavit for the search warrant as based on his experience, … Continue reading
The showing of nexus was thin, but not bare bones, and it was reasonable to infer that evidence of three robberies would be found where he was staying with his girlfriend. There clearly was probable cause to arrest him in … Continue reading