- N.D.Iowa: A “Brinks box” in the house being searched with a warrant for drugs was subject to the search
- TN: Failure to include the search warrant and affidavit in the record on appeal waives the search issue
- W.D.Tex.: Def shows a “substantial question” of the legality of his search for bail pending appeal of his conviction
- CA9: Three month old information about where probationer lived wasn’t stale for probation search
- M.D.Ala.: One day’s GPS monitoring reasonable under Knotts, all things considered
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Cell site location information
VA: State gets to argue GFE after a Carpenter remand even though it never raised the question before Carpenter was decided
Defendant was the subject of warrantless CSLI pre-Carpenter, and he petitioned for cert while Carpenter was pending. After Carpenter was decided, his case was GVR’d back to the state court of appeals. Reed v. Virginia, 138 S. Ct. 2702 (2018). … Continue reading
CA5: CSLI obtained prior to Carpenter was valid, and it didn’t taint CSLI obtained after Carpenter for backup
Defendant was suspected of being a serial bank robber in the Houston area, and the government obtain CSLI by an SCA § 2703(d) order without a showing of probable cause. Two months before trial, Carpenter was decided, and, that same … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require that the officers actually share the information
The collective knowledge doctrine doesn’t require that the officers actually share the information. United States v. Devaugh, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 196059 (D.D.C. Nov. 12, 2019). The use of a “court ordered subpoena” apparently not issued on probable cause was … Continue reading
A cell phone ping is a search under the Fourth Amendment and Washington Constitutions requiring a warrant. It was reasonable here, however, because of exigent circumstances because defendant was a suspect, and the police feared he’d fled. State v. Muhammad, … Continue reading
NCMEC was a private entity and not a government actor. The government didn’t exceed the private search. United States v. Kendall, 2019 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 192442 (E.D. Ky. Nov. 6, 2019). Defendant had no reasonable expectation of privacy in an … Continue reading
Defendant was called by the police for an interview about a child molestation accusation, and he agreed to meet. He didn’t show. Then the police were concerned maybe he was fleeing and they sought realtime CSLI to locate him. “We … Continue reading
A lady found a drone in her yard, and she was already concerned about people flying drones over her house. A computer memory card was in the drone. She looked at it, and called the police and turned it over. … Continue reading
While Carpenter is a “new rule,” courts on post-conviction haven’t been applying it, and this court does not either. State v. Neil, 2019-Ohio-3793, 2019 Ohio App. LEXIS 3843 (10th Sept. 19, 2019):
Pennsylvania withdraws a CSLI opinion (Commonwealth v. Pacheco, 2019 PA Super 208, 2019 Pa. Super. LEXIS 662 (July 3, 2019)) and directs that the parties brief whether Carpenter applies to real time CSLI. Commonwealth v. Pacheco, 2019 Pa. Super. LEXIS … Continue reading
The trial court didn’t make specific findings that defendant consented to the taking of blood for a BAC test. So, the appellate court looks to the record and finds that the evidence supports a finding of consent and denial of … Continue reading
CA2: More regular home visits of sex offenders to verify information reasonable under “special needs”
Suffolk County contracted with a private non-profit to verify registered sex offenders’ addresses, and that required home visits. Plaintiff sued for violation of the Fourth Amendment. The court holds that their actions were permitted under the “special needs” exception because … Continue reading
Lexology: Carpenter and Everything After: The Supreme Court Nudges the Fourth Amendment into the Information Age
Lexology: Carpenter and Everything After: The Supreme Court Nudges the Fourth Amendment into the Information Age by Christopher Fonzone, Kate Heinzelman, and Michael R. Roberts