- N.D.Ill.: Ptf adequately pled that def officers used SWs as excuse to commit theft and robberies of search targets
- D.N.M.: Pocket and backpack search and patdown of 21 students at school for stolen money was with RS so officer gets QI
- W.D.Tenn.: Seizure of clothing from hospital room floor was justified by plain view
- Slate: Biometrics vs. the Fifth Amendment
- New Law Review Article: Fourth Amendment Textualism
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. 25k posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
2017 ABA Journal Web 100
Category Archives: Administrative search
CA11: Work-related injuries don’t necessarily translate into OSHA violations; records request quashed as overbroad
Existence of work-related injuries or illnesses do not translate directly into reasonable suspicion that an OSHA violation occurred. The district court was correct in quashing the inspection warrant for lack of a proper showing, without prejudice to OSHA establishing the … Continue reading
A controlled buy was probable cause to arrest. United States v. Jackson, 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 158445 (M.D. Pa. Sep. 18, 2018).* Plaintiffs’ claim that an administrative code violation search was a pretext for a criminal search fails on the … Continue reading
CA5: Texas medical board’s forthwith subpoena was shown not to be pretextual for criminal investigative purpose
Plaintiff is a doctor running a clinic dispensing opiods, and the Texas medical board got a forthwith administrative subpoena out for him and seized records. The defendants get qualified immunity. It’s not clear that doctors are a closely regulated industry … Continue reading
“Officer Myers’ instruction to ‘hang tight’ while he ran Defendant’s driver’s license [and had it in hand], would lead a reasonable person in Defendant’s shoes not to feel free to leave. Thus, the consensual encounter became a seizure under the … Continue reading
Taxpayer’s property tax assessment appeal is dismissed for refusing an inspection of the property claiming a Fourth Amendment violation. He claimed the records of the assessor are incorrect, and the assessor wants to see whether that’s true. He was told … Continue reading
S.D.Ala.: That state court warrant was missing two pages when filed doesn’t matter when the whole SW produced in federal court
The search warrant was issued by a state court, and two pages were missing from the filed version. The complete version was presented in federal court, and the fact part was missing in state court is not a Fourth Amendment … Continue reading
The exclusionary rule does not apply to probation revocation proceedings. No federal case holds to the contrary. Thompson v. State, 2018 Del. LEXIS 346 (July 24, 2018). The city’s administrative warrants for petitioner’s dilapidated buildings were properly issued. By statute, … Continue reading
The seizure of defendant’s car was without probable cause for an administrative seizure. While her insurance card did not fully comply with the statute, it was fair on its face that it was her and for her cars. State v. … Continue reading
E.D.Pa.: Warrantless admin seizure of taxicabs for lack of proper permit violates 4A and due process
Warrantless administrative seizure of taxicabs without a proper PPA TLD sticker violates the Fourth Amendment and due process for denial of a predeprivation hearing. Rosemont Taxicab Co. v. Phila. Parking Auth., 2018 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 106322 (E.D. Pa. June 26, … Continue reading
GA: SW obviates need to follow the hearing provisions of the Georgia Animal Protection Act which has provision for impoundment and return of animals seized under the Act
The Georgia Animal Protection Act has provision for impoundment and return of animals seized by the state. When a search warrant is used, as here, that provision doesn’t apply. Bramblett v. Habersham County, 2018 Ga. App. LEXIS 399 (June 21, … Continue reading
The city justified issuance of an administrative warrant for investigation of sewer water contamination under Camara. Administrative probable cause was shown, and the search was reasonable. Dawson v. City of Richmond Heights, 2018-Ohio-1301, 2018 Ohio App. LEXIS 1440 (8th Dist. … Continue reading
The City sought a subpoena to HomeAway to produce records of people that arrange occasional rentals of their homes or apartments for purposes of collecting sales taxes. HomeAway contends that it merely enables people to connect with each other and … Continue reading