- E.D.Pa.: Use of flashlight on backseat of car at night not a search
- OH5: Dog was called two minutes into stop of RV and it didn’t prolong the stop
- M.D.Fla.: No 4A protection for non-citizen stopped by CG at sea
- E.D.N.C.: When there is RS, officers do not need to rule out innocent explanations
- WV: Emergency order of protection was not functional equivalent of SW for entry into home
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Body searches
Assuming random Covid testing of NYC school children is a Fourth Amendment search, the court applies Vernonia School District 47J and special needs and finds it reasonable. Aviles v. De Blasio, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 38930 (S.D. N.Y. Mar. 2, … Continue reading
“Based on the previous controlled drug sales in which agents had seen Ochan participate — including the sale that day — agents had specific knowledge that Ochan sold drugs. From there, the sequence of events on the day of Tom’s … Continue reading
“Under [Ohio statute] an unconscious driver is deemed to have consented to a blood draw,” and that doesn’t violate the Fourth Amendment. State v. Albright, 2021-Ohio-292, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 301 (1st Dist. Feb. 3, 2021).* 2255 petitioner’s Fourth Amendment … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s manual strip and body search in prison for a missing syringe was reasonable. Parker v. Woods, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 36359 (5th Cir. Nov. 19, 2020):
Warrantless collection of penile swabs from defendant in custody lacked exigent circumstances and was suppressed. United States v. Birdsbill, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 196612 (D. Mont. Oct. 20, 2020):
A search warrant to draw defendant driver’s blood included the ability to test it for BAC. But not anything else, such as genetic information, but that’s not the issue. Crider v. State, 2020 Tex. Crim. App. LEXIS 612 (Sept. 16, … Continue reading
Argus Leader: Federal judge awards thousands to those forcibly catheterized for urine samples by Danielle Ferguson (“A federal judge has approved a settlement to individuals who were unconstitutionally made to provide urine samples for suspected drug use through forced catheterizations. … Continue reading
Plaintiff was subjected to two body cavity searches of her rectum and vagina for drugs she was reasonably believed to have smuggled into the jail through booking. It was invasive, but it was reasonable on balance with the jail’s security … Continue reading
“A series of coincidences and mistaken beliefs led to the arrest of Laramie Hinkle for possessing a stolen trailer that was not even stolen. And things got worse from there. Despite Hinkle’s recently having served as police chief in a … Continue reading
D.S.D.: Forced catheterization of drug suspects with SW merely to see if drugs are in their system was unreasonable
Forced catheterization of drug suspects with a search warrant, who refused to urinate on demand, because of suspicion of drug use was unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment under Schmerber. The individual defendants get qualified immunity, however, because of a lack … Continue reading
Sioux Falls Argus Leader: Judge: Forced catheterizations by South Dakota law enforcement violated Constitution
Sioux Falls Argus Leader: Judge: Forced catheterizations by South Dakota law enforcement violated Constitution by Jonathan Ellis (“South Dakota law enforcement’s practice of using forced catheterizations to obtain urine samples from suspects violates the U.S. Constitution, a federal judge has … Continue reading
A search warrant for a blood sample doesn’t have to say that it could be tested, too. Otherwise, why draw it at all. Common sense dictates it would be. Suppression order reversed. State v. Staton, 2020 Tex. App. LEXIS 2610 … Continue reading
Michigan blood tests newborns for certain diseases. Based on Kanuszewski v. Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, 333 F. Supp. 3d 716 (E.D. Mich. 2018), the court finds that the parents are unlikely to succeed on a preliminary injunction. … Continue reading
NYTimes: Opinion: DNA Collection at the Border Threatens the Privacy of All Americans by Daniel I. Morales, Natalie Ram and Jessica L. Roberts (“We’re one step closer to the ‘genetic panopticon’ that Antonin Scalia warned us about.”)
WaPo: Editorial Board: You need a good reason to curb privacy. None exists for collecting DNA at the border. NEWS THIS MONTH that the U.S. government would start collecting DNA from people detained at the border seemed to sketch out … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s body cavity search for a baggie of drugs in her vagina was reasonable by exigent circumstances because of a legitimate fear that she could be harmed and overdose if the bag leaked. Carbone v. Salem, 2019 U.S. App. LEXIS … Continue reading
CA2: Not clearly established for QI that a warrantless body cavity search required exigency and a particularized suspicion
A police officer was entitled to qualified immunity because the right to be free from a warrantless manual body cavity search in the absence of exigent circumstances and a particularized suspicion that evidence of a crime was secreted inside the … Continue reading
NYTimes: Woman Who Said Officer Removed Her Tampon Will Receive $205,000 by Isabella Kwai (“San Antonio approved the payout to Natalie Simms, 40, who said in a lawsuit that the officer violated her rights during a cavity search on the … Continue reading