- CA11: No jurisdiction to enjoin investigation after execution of SW
- The Epoch Times: Google Gave FBI Location Data for Over 5,000 Devices in Jan. 6 Probe
- S.D.Ind.: Forced Covid test didn’t violate 4A
- CA4: Video showed district court’s findings of reasonableness clearly erroneous
- CA3: Fire scene search for potential spread was exigent
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Pretext
The Guardian: California sheriff’s office stops Black drivers five times more often than white people, data shows
The Guardian: California sheriff’s office stops Black drivers five times more often than white people, data shows by Sam Levin (“A new report says sheriffs’ patrols spend more time conducting racially biased stops than they do responding to calls for … Continue reading
OH6: Consent to search cell phone obtained by telling def it would get his phone back sooner was involuntary
Defendant’s consent to search his phone was merely acquiescing to a claim of lawful authority because it was told if he consented he could get it back faster. State v. Seem, 2022-Ohio-3507, 2022 Ohio App. LEXIS 3314 (6th Dist. Sep. … Continue reading
In denying a petition for rehearing en banc, two of eleven judges of the Eighth Circuit question when pretext can be raised. Saunders v. Thies, 2022 U.S. App. LEXIS 25527 (8th Cir. Sep. 12, 2022), Grasz and Smith dissenting from … Continue reading
Public threats against FBI agents involved in the search requires leaving the affidavit for the search warrant under seal. In re Warrant, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 150388 (S.D. Fla. Aug. 22, 2022). Defendant’s traffic stop was factually based and not … Continue reading
The USMJ’s finding that the stop was racially motivated is rejected. Reviewing the dashcam video, the stop was clearly justified for a traffic offense, and that’s all that was legally required. United States v. Crawford, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 120634 … Continue reading
Cal.1: Superior Court improperly dismissed pretextual stop claim under California Racial Justice Act of 2020
Defendant here gets reconsideration of his discovery request over an alleged pretextual stop under the California Racial Justice Act of 2020 (Stats. 2020, ch. 317, § 1). He gets over the threshold for a preliminary showing. The trial court impermissibly … Continue reading
Execution of a facially valid writ of execution is a reasonable seizure. Coonts v. Potts, 316 F.3d 745, 750-51 (8th Cir. 2003). Knight v. City of Omaha, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 41932 (D.Neb. Mar. 9, 2022). “In sum, Price’s status … Continue reading
The probation search condition permitting one without reasonable suspicion violates state law. Remanded to strike it from probation terms. Bowman v. State, 2022 Fla. App. LEXIS 1611 (Fla. 4th DCA Mar. 9, 2022). Window tinting stop: “Moreover, because Trooper Otterson … Continue reading
“We conclude that while the trial court erred in considering the officers’ subjective intent in effectuating the seizure, it was nonetheless correct that the officers lacked reasonable and articulable suspicion to detain Brown. Accordingly, we affirm the trial court’s order … Continue reading
“In either event, the officers were justified in searching the wrecked vehicle to get it out of the ditch for an inventory or for officer safety. Officers searched the vehicle in an effort to find the purported driver’s name or … Continue reading
LATimes: New limits on ‘pretextual stops’ by LAPD officers approved, riling police union by Kevin Rector:
The government’s extensive surveillance evidence of defendant showed probable cause for the warrant. United States v. Alvarez-Quinonez, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 26292 (W.D.Wash. Feb. 14, 2022).* Defendant’s claim of racial profiling pleads no facts and is denied. He can, however, … Continue reading
Court rejects claim that search warrant could be pretextual to seize something else in plain view. That’s a foray into subjective intent the court won’t do. United States v. Contreras, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 242185 (N.D.Ill. Dec. 20, 2021):
It is not unreasonable under the Fourth Amendment for a DEA agent to stop a car on state highways for an alleged traffic violation. There was probable cause for an automobile exception search. United States v. Vallejos, 2021 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
Defendant’s emailing a reporter search warrant materials subject to a protective order results in his conviction for contempt. Defendant understood the order, and only defense counsel was able to use the materials, not him. He was later pro se but … Continue reading
LATimes: L.A. sheriff’s deputies use minor stops to search bicyclists, with Latinos hit hardest by Alene Tchekmedyian, Ben Poston and Julia Barajas (“The Times’ analysis of more than 44,000 bike stops logged by the Sheriff’s Department since 2017 found that … Continue reading
Probable cause was shown for CSLI before the state judge, but the state sought the order under the wrong statute. That doesn’t violate the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Fregia, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32587 (9th Cir. Nov. 2, 2021). … Continue reading
CA9: “[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.”
“[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.” United States v. Ordaz, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32449 (6th Cir. Oct. 29, 2021). Pre-Carpenter … Continue reading
“In light of the Supreme Court’s decision in Cooley, we conclude the federal law enforcement officer working as an agent for the tribal drug enforcement agency had jurisdiction to detain Suelzle for a reasonable time while awaiting a state officer … Continue reading
NYT: Pulled Over: The Demand for Money Behind Many Police Traffic Stops by Mike McIntire and Michael H. Keller (“Busted taillights, missing plates, tinted windows: Across the U.S., ticket revenue funds towns — and the police responsible for finding violations.”):