- HI: Miranda warnings required whenever PC developes for arrest
- WA: Stop to inquire of paying transit fare violated state constitution
- OH1: Defense counsel ineffective for not challenging state’s alleged consent after they announced “we’re going to be doing a search warrant here”
- CA10: Five seconds is de minimus under Rodriguez
- Reason: An Oregon Man Was Wrongly Imprisoned for Almost a Year Because of an Error in a DMV Database
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by John Wesley Hall
Criminal Defense Lawyer and
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Little Rock, Arkansas
Contact: forhall @ aol.com / The Book
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Pretext
S.D.N.Y.: Emailing SW materials subject to protective order results in contempt conviction
Defendant’s emailing a reporter search warrant materials subject to a protective order results in his conviction for contempt. Defendant understood the order, and only defense counsel was able to use the materials, not him. He was later pro se but … Continue reading
LATimes: L.A. sheriff’s deputies use minor stops to search bicyclists, with Latinos hit hardest
LATimes: L.A. sheriff’s deputies use minor stops to search bicyclists, with Latinos hit hardest by Alene Tchekmedyian, Ben Poston and Julia Barajas (“The Times’ analysis of more than 44,000 bike stops logged by the Sheriff’s Department since 2017 found that … Continue reading
CA9: State’s seeking CSLI with PC but under wrong statute not 4A violation
Probable cause was shown for CSLI before the state judge, but the state sought the order under the wrong statute. That doesn’t violate the Fourth Amendment. United States v. Fregia, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32587 (9th Cir. Nov. 2, 2021). … Continue reading
CA9: “[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.”
“[T]he officer’s acknowledgment that he was looking for a reason to stop Ordaz does not contradict or otherwise undermine his testimony that he found one.” United States v. Ordaz, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 32449 (6th Cir. Oct. 29, 2021). Pre-Carpenter … Continue reading
ND: Federal tribal DTF officer could stop suspected DUI on state highway
“In light of the Supreme Court’s decision in Cooley, we conclude the federal law enforcement officer working as an agent for the tribal drug enforcement agency had jurisdiction to detain Suelzle for a reasonable time while awaiting a state officer … Continue reading
NYT: Pulled Over: The Demand for Money Behind Many Police Traffic Stops
NYT: Pulled Over: The Demand for Money Behind Many Police Traffic Stops by Mike McIntire and Michael H. Keller (“Busted taillights, missing plates, tinted windows: Across the U.S., ticket revenue funds towns — and the police responsible for finding violations.”):
Pretextual arrests: WaPo: Ex-D.C. firefighter to receive $390,000 from Fairfax County over wrongful arrest
WaPo: Ex-D.C. firefighter to receive $390,000 from Fairfax County over wrongful arrest (“Elon Wilson spent 21 months in prison after being wrongly pulled over by then-Officer Jonathan A. Freitag”)
CT: SW for blood was independent source from extension of stop
The search warrant for defendant’s blood is a valid independent source from the alleged extension of the stop. State v. Fields, 2021 Conn. App. LEXIS 341 (Sept. 28, 2021).* The circumstances of this stop and arrest are objectively reasonable, so … Continue reading
E.D.Ky.: Sex offense victim’s uncorroborated statements supported issuance of SW for defendant’s email account
Sex offense victim’s uncorroborated statements supported issuance of a warrant for defendant’s email account. A victim is not treated the same as an informant for probable cause purposes. United States v. Deleon, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 182049 (E.D.Ky. Sept. 23, … Continue reading
N.D.Tex.: First dog alert was before the dog jumped in the window, so the original alert was independent of that
“Because a positive alert by a drug dog creates probable cause to search a vehicle—and this alert occurred before the dog’s nose entered Castaneda’s window—the Court finds that regardless of whether the dog’s breach of the window amounted to an … Continue reading
CA8: Some evidence of nexus saves SW under GFE
Under the good faith exception, executing officers are entitled to rely on the magistrate judge’s nexus finding with some actual basis they can reasonably rely on, even if it technically might have been wrong. United States v. Barnes, 2021 U.S. … Continue reading
W.D.Mo.: Even if pretextual, this stop was otherwise reasonable
The traffic stop here was reasonable even if pretextual. United States v. Brown, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 155885 (W.D.Mo. July 30, 2021).* There was justification for defendant’s stop: driving 100 mph and other traffic violations. United States v. Young, 2021 … Continue reading
CA10: Impoundment of car was pretext for inventory search
Tulsa police’s impoundment of defendant’s car was a pretext for an inventory search. The inventory policy didn’t even mention impoundment. United States v. Woodard, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 22443 (10th Cir. July 27, 2021):
S.D.W.Va.: Pretext on pretext too much for this court; no RS for stop
A lane change without signaling that affected no other motorist wasn’t justification for defendant’s stop. One crossing the fog line isn’t enough. Pretext on pretext is just too much. Motion to suppress granted. United States v. Womack, 2021 U.S. Dist. … Continue reading
CA9: Suspicionless search of unconscious person in hospital bed violated clearly established law
“Thus, under binding precedent from this court and the Supreme Court, any reasonable officer would have known that Defendants’ suspicionless and warrantless search of Katzenjammer’s body, while she lay unconscious in a hospital bed, violated the Fourth Amendment.” Young v. … Continue reading
D.Idaho: Traffic stop was admitted pretextual but it was based on RS of a drug offense and otherwise objectively reasonable
Defendant’s traffic stop was admittedly pretextual to investigate a drug offense, and the officers had reasonable suspicion on collective knowledge to justify the stop. United States v. Tuschoff, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 47130 (D. Idaho Mar. 10, 2021). The CI … Continue reading
OH11: Driver being passed out behind the steering wheel with the engine running is RS
The driver being passed out behind the steering wheel with the engine running and radio playing is reasonable suspicion. State v. Cassel, 2021-Ohio-661, 2021 Ohio App. LEXIS 654 (11th Dist. Mar. 8, 2021).* Defendant’s stop was justified by a traffic … Continue reading
OR: “[J]ust keep your hands where I can see them” is a seizure
“[J]ust keep your hands where I can see them” is a seizure under the Oregon Constitution. State v. Soto-Navarro, 309 Ore. App. 218 (Feb. 10, 2021):
D.Kan.: Pro se motion to suppress of represented def doesn’t attach affidavits, say why 4A or statute violated, or cite any law; denied for having counsel
Defendant is represented by counsel, then files a motion to suppress. “Defendant’s pro se motion reflects a misunderstanding of court proceedings. The Defendant fails to specify which search warrant he objects to, fails to provide a copy, or copies, of … Continue reading