- KS: Passenger had no standing in car he bought for girlfriend
- IA: Warrantless entry for misdemeanor charge unreasonable
- W.D.Ky.: Arrest warrant doesn’t require executing officer to check into PC for it
- N.D.Okla.: Where there is a SW for a vehicle, def’s automobile exception argument is moot
- D.Minn.: Automobile exception applied to RV with engine not on blocks; was capable of movement
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Conflict of laws
IA: Conflict of laws: Federal SW that ends up in state prosecution governed by federal law, not state
When a federal search warrant results in a state prosecution, federal law applies to the search in state court. Here it applied to a scope of search question that might have been decided differently under state law. This court held … Continue reading
Video of a drug search by a company producing HBO’s Meth Storm wasn’t in the hands of the state, so the state couldn’t disclose it, following Harmon v. State, 2020 Ark. 217, 600 S.W.3d 586 (2020). King v. State, 2020 … Continue reading
PA: Because CA police agreed to question a potential suspect in a PA murder, they didn’t become “agents” of PA
A murder occurred in Pennsylvania in 2002. A person with knowledge of the murder had moved to San Bernardino, California. Pennsylvania authorities called California and emailed reports on the murder. The California authorities undertook to interrogate defendant, which she agreed … Continue reading
S.D.N.Y.: Alleged violation of Florida law by def’s arrest there where local officer assisted federal officers wasn’t a 4A violation
An alleged violation of Florida law in defendant’s arrest there with the participation of local law enforcement isn’t shown to be a Fourth Amendment violation. “And Teman has not cited any authority so holding or, for that matter, treating such … Continue reading
D.N.M.: Conflict of laws between circuits: Apply the law where the search occurred, subject maybe to good faith understandings [?]
In a search that took place in Arizona conducted in part by New Mexico officers, the court considers the conflict of laws question of which circuit’s law should apply: the circuit where the search occurred. At bottom, however, the court … Continue reading
Defendant was placed on probation in Arizona, and he was subject to suspicionless searches there. He transferred probation to Nevada under the Interstate Compact for probationers, but Nevada required reasonable suspicion. He knew he was subject to the probation conditions … Continue reading
WA: Evidence lawfully obtained in another jurisdiction is admissible even if state law would have been violated
Washington’s “silver platter doctrine” that evidence lawfully obtained in another jurisdiction will be admitted into evidence there, even if Washington law would have been violated by the search in Washington, is retained and followed. The search warrant for child pornography … Continue reading
Defendant was a suspect in a Maryland murder case, and the state and USMs certainly had probable cause for him connecting him to the murder. Yet, the affidavit for the search warrant for property in New Jersey merely conclusorily stated … Continue reading
CA9: Whether state officers violated state law in the search doesn’t matter in federal court under the 4A
Defendant argues that the officers violated Washington state law in his search and seizure. That doesn’t matter in federal court. United States v. Dauenhauer, 2018 U.S. App. LEXIS 34797 (9th Cir. Dec. 11, 2018). Under Hudson, “The federal exclusionary rule, … Continue reading
IA: No IAC for not challenging evidence obtained in another state where state law was more defense favorable; can’t show outcome would be different
Defendant was arrested in Nebraska, and Iowa authorities sought his DNA there to connect him to an Iowa crime. Nebraska’s standard for obtaining DNA is less demanding. He can’t show on post-conviction that defense counsel was ineffective for not challenging … Continue reading
S.D.Cal.: If you’re suing over a SW issued on false allegations, somebody has to put the SW papers in the MSJ pleadings; nobody did, so denied
This is an excessive force and illegal search claim where plaintiff claimed her husband was unreasonable killed in violation of the Fourth Amendment and state law. It also included a claim that the search warrant was obtained by judicial deception. … Continue reading
WA: Search of hard drive by Texas police for videos made in Washington governed by 4A, not Washington law
Defendant had voyeur videos of a young girl on a hard drive that he ended up having a sexual relationship with after she turned 18. He’d moved from Washington to Texas with the military in between those times and took … Continue reading
N.D.Ga.: NY arrest warrant executed in GA violated NY law but not 4A, and suppression of gun found on arrest would not be granted
There was a New York local court arrest warrant for defendant, and he was arrested on it in Georgia, and then indicted in federal Georgia for being a felon in possession. The government conceded that the arrest violated New York … Continue reading
Pennsylvania’s requirement of probable cause for lane violations isn’t binding in federal court under the Fourth Amendment. “Accordingly, even though a Pennsylvania court may have held that Officer Sampere required probable cause to pull Defendant over for a violation of … Continue reading
Defendant had a DUI accident in Pennsylvania and his blood was drawn at an ER in New York for medical purposes. New York law would exclude the evidence, but Pennsylvania law would not because the doctor-patient privilege doesn’t apply in … Continue reading
IA: While Iowa doesn’t recognize anticipatory warrants by statute, a federal anticipatory SW that ended up in state court was valid
“The defendant now appeals, arguing among other things that Iowa’s search warrant statutes do not authorize anticipatory warrants. We agree, but hold that where the federal government conducts a search pursuant to a valid federal search warrant for purposes of … Continue reading
Defendant was on probation out of Utah and supervised in Louisiana. His PO received information that he might have child pornography on his cell phone. During a PO visit, he was told to get his cell phone and computer out … Continue reading
Defendant lacked standing in his codefendant’s cell phone and motel room. Louisiana’s broad state standing law doesn’t apply in federal prosecutions. United States v. Daniels, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 76266 (E.D. La. May 5, 2017). Officers had justification for a … Continue reading
A Georgia state judge issued this search warrant, and it was supported by probable cause. In any event, the good faith exception saves it. Any exception to the good faith exception under Georgia law is irrelevant in a federal prosecution. … Continue reading