- E.D.Pa.: Use of flashlight on backseat of car at night not a search
- OH5: Dog was called two minutes into stop of RV and it didn’t prolong the stop
- M.D.Fla.: No 4A protection for non-citizen stopped by CG at sea
- E.D.N.C.: When there is RS, officers do not need to rule out innocent explanations
- WV: Emergency order of protection was not functional equivalent of SW for entry into home
online since Feb. 24, 2003
WebPage Visits: real non-robot hits since 2010; approx. about 30,000 posts since 2003
Fourth Amendment cases,
citations, and links
Latest Slip Opinions:
U.S. Supreme Court (Home)
Federal Appellate Courts Opinions
FDsys, many district courts, other federal courts
Military Courts: C.A.A.F., Army, AF, N-M, CG, SF
State courts (and some USDC opinions)
Advanced Google Scholar
Google search tips
LII State Appellate Courts
LexisONE free caselaw
Findlaw Free Opinions
To search Search and Seizure on Lexis.com $
S. Ct. Docket
Solicitor General's site
Briefs online (but no amicus briefs)
Oyez Project (NWU)
"On the Docket"–Medill
S.Ct. Monitor: Law.com
S.Ct. Com't'ry: Law.com
General (many free):
Google Scholar | Google
LexisOne Legal Website Directory
Lexis.com (criminal law/ 4th Amd) $
Findlaw.com (4th Amd)
Federal Law Enforcement Training Center Resources
FBI Domestic Investigations and Operations Guide (2008) (pdf)
DEA Agents Manual (2002) (download)
DOJ Computer Search Manual (2009) (pdf)
Stringrays (ACLU No. Cal.) (pdf)
Congressional Research Service:
--Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Overview of the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (2012)
--Outline of Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Statutes Governing Wiretapping and Electronic Eavesdropping (2012)
--Federal Laws Relating to Cybersecurity: Discussion of Proposed Revisions (2012)
ACLU on privacy
Electronic Frontier Foundation
NACDL’s Domestic Drone Information Center
Electronic Privacy Information Center
Criminal Appeal (post-conviction) (9th Cir.)
Section 1983 Blog
"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
Website design by Wally Waller, Little Rock
Category Archives: Surveillance technology
Reason: Cops Are Using Facial Recognition Technology More Than Previously Revealed by J.D. Tuccille (“The surveillance state is available as a plug-and-play solution for any cop interested in a free trial period.”)
Virginian Pilot: Virginia State Police admit — after repeated denials — that they used controversial facial recognition app
Virginian Pilot: Virginia State Police admit — after repeated denials — that they used controversial facial recognition app by Jonathan Edwards (“After repeated denials, the Virginia State Police last week admitted that some of their detectives used a controversial facial … Continue reading
WaPo: How America’s surveillance networks helped the FBI catch the Capitol mob by Drew Harwell and Craig Timberg (“Federal documents detailing the attacks at the U.S. Capitol show a mix of FBI techniques, from license plate readers to facial recognition, … Continue reading
NYT: If You Care About Privacy, It’s Time to Try a New Web Browser by Brian X. Chen (“A new crop of internet browsers from Brave, DuckDuckGo and others offer stronger privacy protections than what you might be used to.”) … Continue reading
VICE: How Musicians and Sex Workers Beat Facial Recognition in New Orleans by Carolina Sinders (“A grassroots coalition of Black youth, sex workers, and community advocates stood against the surveillance state—and won.”)
WaPo: Thanks to covid-19, the age of biometric surveillance is here by Michele L. Norris:
The township’s use of a drone to fly over defendant’s property to take pictures for a zoning dispute violated their reasonable expectation of privacy. The state legislature said that they have one from drone usage. Long Lake Twp. v. Maxon, … Continue reading
VICE: Cars Have Your Location. This Spy Firm Wants to Sell It to the U.S. Military by Joseph Cox (“15 billion car locations. Nearly any country on Earth. ‘The Ulysses Group’ is pitching a powerful surveillance technology to the U.S. … Continue reading
Forbes: Drones With ‘Most Advanced AI Ever’ Coming Soon To Your Local Police Department by Thomas Brewster (“Founded by Google veterans and backed by $340 million from major VCs, Skydio is creating drones that seem straight out of science fiction—and … Continue reading
WaPo: Massive camera hack exposes the growing reach and intimacy of American surveillance by Drew Harwell (“A breach of the camera start-up Verkada ‘should be a wake-up call to the dangers of self-surveillance,’ one expert said: ‘Our desire for some … Continue reading
EFF: App Stores Have Kicked Out Some Location Data Brokers. Good, Now Kick Them All Out. by Bennett Cyphers:
The officer had reasonable suspicion to frisk three men before they fled him. Releasing a police dog was not unreasonable. The dog’s attack of a 40ish woman, however, was not seen to be reasonable, and the dog was not promptly … Continue reading
Vox: Recode: App trackers secretly sell your location data to the government. App stores won’t stop them.
Vox: Recode: App trackers secretly sell your location data to the government. App stores won’t stop them. By Sara Morrison (“Google can’t stop trackers in its apps from selling location data to the government. Maybe the government can.”)
Techdirt: Treasury Oversight Says IRS Should Consider Getting Warrants Before Buying Location Data From Data Brokers
Techdirt: Treasury Oversight Says IRS Should Consider Getting Warrants Before Buying Location Data From Data Brokers by Tim Cushing (“Last October, Senators Ron Wyden and Elizabeth Warren asked the IRS’s oversight to take a look at the agency’s use of … Continue reading
The Intercept: LAPD Sought Ring Home Security Video Related to Black Lives Matter Protests by Sam Biddle (“Emails obtained from the Los Angeles Police Department show that the department sought protest-related footage from Amazon’s Ring home camera systems in the … Continue reading
NYT: Opinion: They Stormed the Capitol. Their Apps Tracked Them. By Charlie Warzel and Stuart A. Thompson (“Times Opinion was able to identify individuals from a trove of leaked smartphone location data.”)
CBS Baltimore: Baltimore’s Board Of Estimates Ends Agreement With Company Running Aerial Surveillance Program
CBS Baltimore: Baltimore’s Board Of Estimates Ends Agreement With Company Running Aerial Surveillance Program (“The Baltimore City Board of Estimates on Wednesday unanimously approved ending the city’s agreement with the company undertaking the controversial aerial surveillance program. In April 2020, … Continue reading
The Intercept: How The LAPD And Palantir Use Data To Justify Racist Policing by Mara Hvistendahl (“In a new book, a sociologist who spent months embedded with the LAPD details how data-driven policing techwashes bias.”)
WUSA9: DC residents get visits from FBI as agents track cell phones that pinged near the Capitol by Bruce Lashon (“A DC woman said an FBI agent contacted her and said investigators were reaching out to the owner of every … Continue reading
NPR: Maryland Man Arrested After GPS Unit Allegedly Shows He Was At Capitol Riot by Austin Austermuhle (“A Silver Spring man who prosecutors say is a professed white supremacist has been charged for illegally entering and remaining in a restricted … Continue reading