October 2022 S M T W T F S 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31
- OH10: Window tint violation justified impoundment and inventory, even though discretionary
- NY2: Franks claim has to be fully developed; it’s more than just a false statement
- DC: Gant search incident for open containers did not permit search of a small plastic box
- CA11: Questions about travel plans were not an unreasonable extension of a traffic stop
- SC: Request for consent with “do you mind” met with “I do but …” not voluntary. Also no RS for continuing stop.
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"It is a pleasant world we live in, sir, a very pleasant world. There are bad people in it, Mr. Richard, but if there were no bad people, there would be no good lawyers."
—Charles Dickens, “The Old Curiosity Shop ... With a Frontispiece. From a Painting by Geo. Cattermole, Etc.” 255 (1848)
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Privileges
A special master reviewed the product of the search warrant for work product materials. The defendants have the burden of proof on work product, and they didn’t meet it. United States v. Vepuri, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 151833 (E.D. Pa. … Continue reading
The foregone conclusion rule applies to defendant’s Fifth Amendment claim revealing the password to his electronics would incriminate him. Reynolds v. State, 2022 OK CR 14, 2022 Okla. Crim. App. LEXIS 14 (Aug. 4, 2022):
This district court rejects, as has S.D.N.Y., the Art. III function of filter teams reviewing searches of Baltimore Law Firm. (In re Search Warrant Issued June 13, 2019 (“Baltimore Law Firm”), 942 F.3d 159, 170-71 (4th Cir. 2019)). Too much … Continue reading
“The State appeals the denial of its motion to compel a cell phone passcode from defendant, C.J.L. The State argues the motion court erred by overlooking critical ownership evidence and misapplying the foregone conclusion doctrine, effectively importing Fourth Amendment principles … Continue reading
Plaintiff stated a § 1983 claim that a jail phone provider recorded attorney calls. Kurtenbach v. Securus Techs., 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 54089 (D.S.D. Mar. 25, 2022). Colorado grants immunity from crimes found as a result of a call about … Continue reading
“Long-standing precedent makes clear that swearing to an arrest warrant affidavit and executing an arrest are traditional police functions, and performing such functions at the direction of a prosecutor does not transform them into prosecutorial acts protected by absolute immunity.” … Continue reading
“The trial court erred in denying Appellant’s motion in limine and allowing the State to present evidence and argument referencing Appellant’s refusal to provide his cellphone PIN and his refusal to consent to a warrantless search of his entire cellphone. … Continue reading
W.D.N.C.: No standing to challenge alleged interception of calls between another person and his lawyer
Plaintiff’s claim that government agents intercepted telephone calls between some other person and his lawyer in violation of the attorney-client privilege fails because he had no standing to complain. Labreche v. Chambers, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 28163 (W.D.N.C. Feb. 16, … Continue reading
The foregone conclusion rationale for access to passcodes for cell phones. There was no Fifth Amendment privilege to providing the passcodes. Inevitable discovery applies. United States v. Zhengdong Cheng, 2022 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6437 (S.D.Tex. Jan. 12, 2022):
N.D.Ohio: Def’s psychotherapist reported he was viewing CP; 4A does not prohibit using it in SW application
The psychotherapist-patient privilege does not bar use of a report from defendant’s psychotherapist to law enforcement that defendant admitted viewing child pornography. The psychotherapist discussed with others and concluded that a report was necessary. Whatever the privilege for trial, it … Continue reading
WI: Contempt for failing to provide passcode for search of phone is reversed because it is now moot by SW
The owner of a cell phone was held in contempt for not providing a passcode to his phone so police could search it. They did not yet have a warrant. After defendant was held in contempt, the police obtained a … Continue reading
The foregone conclusion doctrine applies to obtaining the passcode to a cell phone to search it. Thus, production of the passcode is non-testimonial for the Fifth Amendment. People v. Sneed, 2021 IL App (4th) 210180, 2021 Ill. App. LEXIS 637 … Continue reading
Defendant is charged with killing his wife. He didn’t have standing to challenge a search warrant for his father’s cell phones where attorney-client privilege in their contents was asserted because the father was communicating with expert witnesses in his case. … Continue reading
Politico: FBI raid on Project Veritas founder’s home sparks questions about press freedom by Josh Gerstein (“The action against James O’Keefe has prompted concern about the Biden administration’s commitment to the First Amendment.”) Is O’Keefe a “journalist” or not? He … Continue reading
The trial court’s order denying return of patient records taken by search warrant from the petitioner youth services provider failed to comply with HIPAA requirements should have been granted. While the records have been returned and the case is otherwise … Continue reading
CA9: Use of def’s suppression hearing testimony in penalty phase not unreasonable application of Simmons
The California Supreme Court’s holding that Simmons did not bar using defendant’s suppression hearing testimony in the death penalty phase of his criminal trial (People v. Ochoa, 19 Cal. 4th 353, 79 Cal. Rptr. 2d 408, 966 P.2d 442, 464, … Continue reading
Defendant’s mid-trial motion to suppress a cell phone search was waived: It was not timely, and defendant consented to giving the passcode and gave consent to search it. The privilege against self-incrimination is not self-executing here. Kerner v. State, 2021 … Continue reading
CA11: Govt filter team for review of seized materials not per se unreasonable; stringent protocol followed
The use of a government filter time to review seized materials implicating the attorney-client privilege is not per se unreasonable. The USMJ ordered compliance with a more stringent protocol than approved in other cases. Injunction denied. In re Sealed Search … Continue reading
Property lawfully seized by the city is destroyed or sold after a short while if unclaimed. That doesn’t make it an unreasonable seizure or a taking. Conyers v. City of Chicago, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 24676 (7th Cir. Aug. 18, … Continue reading
The New Mexico regulatory scheme for truck inspections has already been held to satisfy Burger. Stopping defendants’ truck for inspection at an inspection station was reasonable under that standard. On opening the trailer to compare to the bills of lading, … Continue reading