- E.D.Pa.: Use of flashlight on backseat of car at night not a search
- OH5: Dog was called two minutes into stop of RV and it didn’t prolong the stop
- M.D.Fla.: No 4A protection for non-citizen stopped by CG at sea
- E.D.N.C.: When there is RS, officers do not need to rule out innocent explanations
- WV: Emergency order of protection was not functional equivalent of SW for entry into home
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Fourth Amendment cases,
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"If it was easy, everybody would be doing it. It isn't, and they don't."
“I am still learning.”
—Domenico Giuntalodi (but misattributed to Michelangelo Buonarroti (common phrase throughout 1500's)).
"Love work; hate mastery over others; and avoid intimacy with the government."
—Shemaya, in the Thalmud
"A system of law that not only makes certain conduct criminal, but also lays down rules for the conduct of the authorities, often becomes complex in its application to individual cases, and will from time to time produce imperfect results, especially if one's attention is confined to the particular case at bar. Some criminals do go free because of the necessity of keeping government and its servants in their place. That is one of the costs of having and enforcing a Bill of Rights. This country is built on the assumption that the cost is worth paying, and that in the long run we are all both freer and safer if the Constitution is strictly enforced."
—Williams v. Nix, 700 F. 2d 1164, 1173 (8th Cir. 1983) (Richard Sheppard Arnold, J.), rev'd Nix v. Williams, 467 US. 431 (1984).
"The criminal goes free, if he must, but it is the law that sets him free. Nothing can destroy a government more quickly than its failure to observe its own laws, or worse, its disregard of the charter of its own existence."
—Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643, 659 (1961).
"Any costs the exclusionary rule are costs imposed directly by the Fourth Amendment."
—Yale Kamisar, 86 Mich.L.Rev. 1, 36 n. 151 (1987).
"There have been powerful hydraulic pressures throughout our history that bear heavily on the Court to water down constitutional guarantees and give the police the upper hand. That hydraulic pressure has probably never been greater than it is today."
— Terry v. Ohio, 392 U.S. 1, 39 (1968) (Douglas, J., dissenting).
"The great end, for which men entered into society, was to secure their property."
—Entick v. Carrington, 19 How.St.Tr. 1029, 1066, 95 Eng. Rep. 807 (C.P. 1765)
"It is a fair summary of history to say that the safeguards of liberty have frequently been forged in controversies involving not very nice people. And so, while we are concerned here with a shabby defrauder, we must deal with his case in the context of what are really the great themes expressed by the Fourth Amendment."
—United States v. Rabinowitz, 339 U.S. 56, 69 (1950) (Frankfurter, J., dissenting)
"The course of true law pertaining to searches and seizures, as enunciated here, has not–to put it mildly–run smooth."
—Chapman v. United States, 365 U.S. 610, 618 (1961) (Frankfurter, J., concurring).
"A search is a search, even if it happens to disclose nothing but the bottom of a turntable."
—Arizona v. Hicks, 480 U.S. 321, 325 (1987)
"For the Fourth Amendment protects people, not places. What a person knowingly exposes to the public, even in his own home or office, is not a subject of Fourth Amendment protection. ... But what he seeks to preserve as private, even in an area accessible to the public, may be constitutionally protected."
—Katz v. United States, 389 U.S. 347, 351 (1967)
“Experience should teach us to be most on guard to protect liberty when the Government’s purposes are beneficent. Men born to freedom are naturally alert to repel invasion of their liberty by evil-minded rulers. The greatest dangers to liberty lurk in insidious encroachment by men of zeal, well-meaning but without understanding.”
—United States v. Olmstead, 277 U.S. 438, 479 (1925) (Brandeis, J., dissenting)
“Liberty—the freedom from unwarranted intrusion by government—is as easily lost through insistent nibbles by government officials who seek to do their jobs too well as by those whose purpose it is to oppress; the piranha can be as deadly as the shark.”
—United States v. $124,570, 873 F.2d 1240, 1246 (9th Cir. 1989)
"You can't always get what you want / But if you try sometimes / You just might find / You get what you need."
—Mick Jagger & Keith Richards
"In Germany, they first came for the communists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a communist. Then they came for the Jews, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Jew. Then they came for the trade unionists, and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a trade unionist. Then they came for the Catholics and I didn't speak up because I wasn't a Catholic. Then they came for me–and by that time there was nobody left to speak up."
—Martin Niemöller (1945) [he served seven years in a concentration camp]
“You know, most men would get discouraged by now. Fortunately for you, I am not most men!”"The point of the Fourth Amendment, which often is not grasped by zealous officers, is not that it denies law enforcement the support of the usual inferences which reasonable men draw from evidence. Its protection consists in requiring that those inferences be drawn by a neutral and detached magistrate instead of being judged by the officer engaged in the often competitive enterprise of ferreting out crime."
---Pepé Le Pew
—Johnson v. United States, 333 U.S. 10, 13-14 (1948)
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Category Archives: Search
The reach into defendant’s car was a search, but it was justified by the automobile exception. United States v. Joyner, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 68324 (E.D. N.C. Mar. 15, 2021). Defendant’s stop wasn’t unreasonably extended. “Although Officer Hambrock walked back … Continue reading
D.D.C.: Requirement of a medical exam to determine if a firefighter can return to duty isn’t 4A violation
“McCrea claims that Defendants violated her Fourth Amendment right to privacy by ordering her to undergo psychological assessments that went beyond the essential functions of her job as a firefighter. … The Fourth Amendment protects an individual’s ‘reasonable expectation of … Continue reading
There is no interstate commerce predicate to a federal search and seizure. Defendant cites no authority and the court doesn’t find one. United States v. Watson, 2021 U.S. App. LEXIS 8564 n.3 (6th Cir. Mar. 22, 2021). Remanded a second … Continue reading
Defendant didn’t file a declaration under penalty of perjury contesting the facts alleged in his criminal complaint. He also fails to show even a subjective reasonable expectation of privacy in the place searched to give him standing. He abandoned his … Continue reading
Dialing defendant’s cell phone from the call log of a seized cell phone was not a search. If defendant wanted his number to remain private, he should block the number or turn off the phone. United States v. Katana, 2021 … Continue reading
An airline pilot nude in his room who was seen through the window doesn’t state a Fourth Amendment claim that the hotel had a duty to protect him from being seen by the public. Besides that, he doesn’t state any … Continue reading
Running wants or warrants on a sex offender involved in a stop didn’t violate the Fourth Amendment. United States v. McCowan, 2021 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 6500 (D. Nev. Jan. 13, 2021).* The affidavit for the search warrant shows probable cause. … Continue reading
Plaintiff’s 1983 unreasonable search claim is untimely. He brought the claim after his state appeal reversed his conviction on a bad search. “Dibrell’s claim is untimely under these rules. His detention ended on February 18, 2014, when he was released … Continue reading
The district court erred in summarily dismissing plaintiff’s case at § 1915A screening for failure to state a claim, because he did in the attempted amended complaint. “Edwards alleged that Rice lacked a search warrant when she conducted an investigation … Continue reading
Husband’s interception of his wife’s work emails for advantage in their divorce case violated the Stored Communications Act as well as her right of privacy. The district court erred in granting him summary judgment. Clare v. Clare, 19-36039 (9th Cir. … Continue reading
The officer was investigating defendant for DUII and followed him home. His knock on the door and direction to “open the door” was a command to submit to a search. The officer’s observation of defendant’s condition is suppressed. State v. … Continue reading
“Because opening the car door and leaning into the car constituted an unlawful search under the Fourth Amendment, the panel considered what remedy is appropriate in this case. The panel held that the exclusionary rule applies to the loaded handgun … Continue reading
“R.F. appeals the denial of his motion to suppress physical evidence. Because we conclude appellant was not seized for Fourth Amendment purposes where the deputy used a spotlight and a flashlight to illuminate his approach of appellant, we affirm the … Continue reading
N.D.Miss.: In wrongful death action, officer’s subjective intent offered by 404(b) evidence is inadmissible; reasonableness is objective
Because the reasonableness standard is based on objective evidence confronting the officer, the use of 404(b) evidence here would be too extraneous to show subjective intent. “Because reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment is disconnected from an officer’s subjective intent, the … Continue reading
Failure to get a ruling on a search claim in the trial court is waiver of the issue for appeal. People v. Collins, 2020 NY Slip Op 04517, 2020 N.Y. App. Div. LEXIS 4610 (1st Dept. Aug. 13, 2020). Drug … Continue reading
A field test of drugs seized off defendant’s person finding them presumptively methamphetamine is reasonable under the Fourth Amendment and the state constitution. There is no enlarged reasonable expectation of privacy as to them when seized. State v. Funkhouser, 2020 … Continue reading
W.D.Wash.: Powering on a cell phone to look at the lock screen was a search intruding on defendant’s reasonable expectation of privacy
Powering on a cell phone to look at the lock screen was a search intruding on defendant’s reasonable expectation of privacy. United States v. Sam, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 87143 (W.D. Wash. May 18, 2020):
“The fact that Detective Nance searched portions of the vehicle more than once did not violate the Fourth Amendment.” Mendoza v. United States, 2020 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 68469 (E.D. Tex. Apr. 20, 2020). The exclusionary rule does not apply in … Continue reading
County of Riverside v. McLaughlin’s 48 hour rule does not apply to parole holds. Benson v. Chappell, 2020 U.S. App. LEXIS 14035 (9th Cir. May 1, 2020). There was reasonable suspicion for defendant’s stop, but the officer’s opening the car … Continue reading